Skip to main content
ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Corvallis, Oregon » Horticultural Crops Research Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #310806

Research Project: Genetic Improvement and Virus Management of Small Fruit Crops

Location: Horticultural Crops Research Unit

Title: Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry

Author
item QUITO-AVILA, DIEGO - Centro De Investigaciones Biotecnologicas Del Ecuador
item Lightle, Danielle
item Martin, Robert

Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/22/2013
Publication Date: 2/1/2014
Citation: Quito-Avila, D.F., Lightle, D.M., Martin, R.R. 2014. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry. Plant Disease. 98:176-183.

Interpretive Summary: Raspberry crumbly fruit disease in red raspberry is widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada and most commonly caused by virus infections. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been thought to cause this disease. Recently, we identified two additional viruses, Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV) and Raspberry latent virus (RpLV), in northern Washington and British Columbia, which suggested the possibility that the disease is caused by a virus complex, or that a complex may result in severe crumbly fruit. Virus testing of plants with severe crumbly fruit from five fields in northern Washington revealed the presence of these three viruses, while plants with less severe crumbly fruit symptoms had a much lower incidence of RLMV or RpLV. Field trials of ‘Meeker’ plants containing single and mixed infections of RBDV, RLMV, or RpLV, along with a virus-free control, were established to determine the role of RLMV and RpLV in crumbly fruit. Field evaluations during establishment and two fruiting years revealed that plants infected with the three viruses or the combination RBDV+RLMV had the greatest reduction in plant growth, while plants infected with RBDV+RpLV had the greatest reduction fruit firmness and fruit weight. Additionally, in mixed infections of RBDV+RLMV, the concentration of RBDV in the plants was increased approximately 400-fold compared to the R plants that RBDV as a single infection. In addition, a virus survey revealed that RLMV and RpLV are present at high incidence in northern Washington; whereas the incidence in southern Washington and Oregon, where crumbly fruit is not as serious a problem, was considerably lower.

Technical Abstract: Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, the identification of two additional viruses, Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV) and Raspberry latent virus (RpLV), in northern Washington and British Columbia suggested the existence of a possible new virus complex responsible for the increased severity of the disease. Virus testing of crumbly-fruited plants from five fields in northern Washington revealed the presence of RLMV and RpLV, in addition to RBDV. While, plants with less severe crumbly fruit symptoms had a much lower incidence of RLMV or RpLV. Field trials using replicated plots of ‘Meeker’ plants containing single and mixed infections of RBDV, RLMV, or RpLV, along with a virus-free control, were developed to determine the role of RLMV and RpLV in crumbly fruit. Field evaluations during establishment and two fruiting years revealed that plants infected with the three viruses or the combinations RBDV+RLMV and RBDV+RpLV had the greatest reduction in cane growth, or fruit firmness and fruit weight, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR tests showed that the titer of RBDV was increased ~400-fold when it occurred in mixed infections with RLMV compared to RBDV in single infections. In addition, a virus survey revealed that RLMV and RpLV are present at high incidence in northern Washington; whereas the incidence in southern Washington and Oregon, where crumbly fruit is not as serious a problem, was considerably lower.