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ARS Home » Plains Area » Lincoln, Nebraska » Agroecosystem Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #310645

Research Project: Integrated Management of Stable Flies

Location: Agroecosystem Management Research

Title: Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

item Solorzano, Jose-arturo - Costa Rica Institution
item Guilles, Jeremie - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
item Bravo, Oscar - Costa Rica Institution
item Vargas, Cristina - Costa Rica Institution
item Gomez-bonilla, Yannery - Costa Rica Institution
item Bingham, Georgina - Non Ars Employee
item Taylor, David - Dave

Submitted to: Journal of Insect Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/17/2015
Publication Date: 10/9/2015
Publication URL:
Citation: Solorzano, J., Guilles, J., Bravo, O., Vargas, C., Gomez-Bonilla, Y., Bingham, G., Taylor, D.B. 2015. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica . Journal of Insect Science. 15(1):145.

Interpretive Summary: The efficacy of four fabric traps was compared with that of white plastic coated with glue for collecting stable flies associated with pineapple production in Costa Rica. More flies were collected on the white plastic than in any of the fabric traps. Among the fabric traps, the NZI and Vavoua traps caught more flies than the H and NGU traps. The highest number of flies was collected six days after the pineapple residues were shredded and the sex ratio was 7 females to 3 males at that time. By the end of the 28 day trial, the sex ratio was 1 to 1.

Technical Abstract: Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16'd after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3–7'd after chopping to 1:1 at 24–28'd. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3–7'd after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature.