|Kline, Daniel - Dan|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/28/2014
Publication Date: 9/11/2014
Citation: Kline, D.L., Strickman, D.A. 2014. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents. Book Chapter. 2:237-249.
Technical Abstract: Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices, that have been developed to delivery an active ingredient in sufficient concentration to discourage biting arthropods from entering a space occupied by a potential host. Mosquito coils are the most popular and universally used product. The ultimate goal for the use of spatial repellents is is to create a vector-free space. Spatial repellents have inherent limitations on both safety and efficacy. Efficacy is likely to be limited by several factors. The spatial repellent must work across a distance so that people at a greater distance from the source are likely to be at greater risk of receiving bites. For chemicals, any air movement will tend to reduce efficacy. Until recently no standardized evaluation methods existed for testing the efficacy of candidate spatial repellents. The World Health Organization recently published recently published a document that provides guidance, and these are described briefly in this chapter. The chapter ends ends with a section on conclusions and future directions. The main conclusion is that spatial repellents have been underutilized and could become an important part of integrated vector management in the near future.