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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Mississippi State, Mississippi » Poultry Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #310399

Research Project: Strategies to Control and Prevent Avian Mycoplasmosis

Location: Poultry Research

Title: The impact of deposition site on vaccination efficiency of a bacterial-based poultry vaccine

Author
item Evans, Jeff
item Leigh, Spencer
item Purswell, Joseph
item Collier, Stephanie
item Kim, Elizabeth
item Boykin, Deborah - Debbie
item Branton, Scott

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2015
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Vaccines are utilized within the poultry industry to minimize disease-associated losses and spray vaccination is a commonly-utilized means for the mass application of poultry vaccines. During this process, vaccine-laden particles are deposited upon areas (e.g. eyes, nares, oral cavity) which result in the direct internalization of the vaccine into the host. However, particles are also deposited upon the exterior of the subject and its surrounding environment. As vaccine particles maintain viability for a limited period of time, those particles not directly incorporated by the host may be internalized by some secondary event and therefore provide a subsequent source of vaccine to the host. To better determine the fate of particles not initially internalized by the host and the impact of these particles on the vaccination process, a live bacterial-based poultry vaccine was deposited via spray to sites on the chicken not associated with direct internalization of the vaccine. Following vaccine application, effects of deposition site on the vaccination efficiency were measured via several diagnostics tests and results indicated an additive contribution of the vaccine deposited on the body to the overall vaccination efficiency of this bacterial-based live poultry vaccine.

Technical Abstract: Vaccines are utilized within the poultry industry to minimize disease-associated losses and spray vaccination is a commonly-utilized means for the mass application of poultry vaccines. During this process, vaccine-laden particles are deposited upon target areas (e.g. eyes, nares, oral cavity) resulting in the direct internalization of the vaccine. However, particles are also deposited on non-target areas such as the exterior of the subject and its surrounding environment. To better determine the fate of particles deposited upon non-target areas and the impact of deposition site on the efficiency of vaccine application, a live bacterial-based poultry vaccine (AviPro® MG F) was applied via spray using a spray cabinet with a slotted partition allowing for head-only, body-only, and whole-bird spray application. At 11 weeks of age, Hy-Line® W-36 pullets (n=280) were allocated equally among seven treatments including: non-vaccinated controls; pullets spray-vaccinated at the manufacturer’s recommended dose (1X) in a site-specific manner (head-only, body-only, and whole-bird); pullets spray-vaccinated at 5X the recommended level (body-only); pullets vaccinated by manual eye-drop application (1X); and pullets eye-drop vaccinated at a level approximating that achieved during the spray vaccination process (1/700X). At 6-7 weeks post-vaccination, vaccination efficiency was assessed via serological-based assays (SPA and ELISA) and the detection of vaccine-derived in vivo populations. Results indicate an additive contribution of the vaccine deposited on the body to the overall vaccination efficiency of this bacterial-based live poultry vaccine.