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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #309535

Research Project: FOOD FACTORS AND MAINTENANCE OF BODY WEIGHT AND HEALTH

Location: Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research

Title: Intake of seafood in the U.S. varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity

Author
item Jahns, Lisa
item Raatz, Susan
item Johnson, Luann - University Of North Dakota
item Kranz, Sibylle - University Of Bristol
item Silverstein, Jeffrey
item Picklo, Matthew

Submitted to: Nutrients
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/10/2014
Publication Date: 12/22/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60156
Citation: Jahns, L.A., Raatz, S.K., Johnson, L.K., Kranz, S., Silverstein, J., Picklo, M.J. 2014. Intake of seafood in the U.S. varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity. Nutrients. 6(12):6060-6075.

Interpretive Summary: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health, however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. We conducted this study to describe both prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of any seafood, fish, and shellfish, eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Seafood intake was also compared to the federal intake recommendation. We found that over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, approximately three-fourths reported consuming fish, and half reported eating shellfish. The proportions varied by sex, income and education level but not by race-ethnicity. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer. Women and individuals of younger age and lower income level consumed less seafood. Approximately 80% - 90% of Americans did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. Based on our results, much work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. To promote adoption and adherence to recommendations, public health intervention is needed to both shift non-seafood eaters to adoption of regular consumption and to increase the amount of seafood consumed.

Technical Abstract: Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health, however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. Objective: The purposes of this study were to describe both prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of any seafood, fish, and shellfish, eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Seafood intake was also compared to the federal intake recommendation. Methods: Data from WWEIA, NHANES surveys in years 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Logistic regression was used to test whether the percentage of consumers varied within socio-demographic subgroups. Usual intake methodology was used to estimate amounts consumed and differences within subgroups were tested using Z-tests. Results: Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, approximately three-fourths reported consuming fish and half reported eating shellfish. The proportions varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (P < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 22.6 ± 0.8 g/d. Women and individuals of lower age and income level consumed less seafood. The same pattern was seen when socio-demographic groups were stratified by sex. Approximately 80% - 90% did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. Conclusions: Much work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. To promote adoption and adherence to recommendations, public health intervention is needed to both shift non-seafood eaters to adoption of regular consumption and to increase the amount of seafood consumed.