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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Ithaca, New York » Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture & Health » Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #309499

Research Project: Bioavailability of Iron, Zinc and Select Phytochemicals for Improved Health

Location: Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research

Title: Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

item LIU, XIAOFEI - University Of Saskatchewan
item Glahn, Raymond
item ARGANOSA, GENE - University Of Saskatchewan
item WARKENTIN, THOMAS - University Of Saskatchewan

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2015
Publication Date: 12/22/2014
Citation: Liu, X., Glahn, R.P., Arganosa, G.C., Warkentin, T.D. 2014. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea. Crop Science. 55(1):320-330.

Interpretive Summary: The effects of phytate and seed coat polyphenols on bioavailability of iron from field pea seeds was assessed using an in vitro/Caco-2 cell model. Phytate and polyphenols have been shown to inhibit iron bioavailability. Two low phytate varieties of peas were tested against normal pea lines for iron bioavailability. Peas were tested with their seed coats removed vs whole peas to assess inhibition of iron from polyphenols (pigmented seed coats). Using the invitro/Caco-2 cell model for bioavailability, the results show that low phytate peas iron bioavailability was 1.4 to1.9 times higher than normal peas, and peas with more polyphenols (pigmented seed coats) had 7 times lower bioavailability than peas with non-pigmented seed coats.

Technical Abstract: Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them unavailable for absorption. Also, it is not well digested by monogastrics. Polyphenols are known to reduce bioavailability of some nutrients. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of phytate and seed coat polyphenols on bioavailability of iron from field pea seeds. To increase the nutritional value of field pea seeds, two low phytate lines (1-150-81 and 1-2347-144) containing higher inorganic phosphorus concentration (IN-P) and lower phytate-phosphorus concentration (PA-P) than the normal phytate varieties were developed from CDC Bronco in previous research. Total iron concentration (FECON) did not differ significantly between normal and low phytate varieties. However, iron bioavailability (FEBIO) of the two low-phytate lines was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher than that of the three normal phytate varieties as assessed using a cell culture bioassay. Environment also had a significant effect on FEBIO. Peas with pigmented seed coats had 7 times lower FEBIO than peas with non-pigmented seed coats. Removal of the seed coat increased FEBIO in peas with pigmented seed coat 5 to 6 times.