|SNYDER, DARREN - Kansas State University|
|CERNICCIARO, NATALIA - Kansas State University|
|Allan, Sandra - Sandy|
Submitted to: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/9/2015
Publication Date: 1/20/2016
Citation: Snyder, D., Cernicciaro, N., Allan, S.A., Cohnstaedt, L.W. 2016. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. doi: 10.1111/mve.12158.
Interpretive Summary: Biting midges transmit viruses that result in livestock and wildlife sickness and death, therefore reducing the disease transmitting insect population insecticidal sugar baits will help reduce risk to animals. Various commercial insecticide products were mixed with 10% sugar water to determine if midges would feed on the toxic solutions. Midge mortality was measured at 1, 4, 10, and 24 hours to determine how well the insecticidal sugar baits functioned. Several pyrethroid mixes worked very well within the first hour. This new technique to kill midges has several advantages one of which is the use of new pesticides to combat the evolution of insecticide resistance.
Technical Abstract: One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular stomatitis. The commercial insecticide formulations (percent active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin (Talstar® 7.9%), cyfluthrin (Tempo® 11.8%), deltamethrin (Suspend™ 4.75%), permethrin (Dragnet® 36.8%), imidacloprid (QuikBayt® 0.5%), thiamethoxam (Platinum® 75.0%), dinotefuran (Safari® 20.0%), spinosad (Natular® 21.6%), and rosemary oil (Ecoexempt® (10.0%). The proportion of knock-down, calculated from the mean percentage of C. sonorensis immobile on the bottom of the assay container floor, was obtained for various concentrations of insecticide (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 1%, 2% and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10, and 24 hours post exposure to ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure the proportion of knock-down. In the second set of assays, competitive feeding was evaluated and midges were provided a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial and sugar+insecticide solution in another to determine if midges would feed on the insecticidal sugar solution when provided the choice of an untreated sugar solution. Bifenthrin and permethrin treatments resulted in the greatest knock-down (> 90%) in the first hour at the lowest concentrations (0.01%, 0.05%, and 0.10%) and the least knock-down was produced by treatment with rosemary oil.