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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Davis, California » Crops Pathology and Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #309353

Research Project: Sustainable Vineyard Production Systems

Location: Crops Pathology and Genetics Research

Title: Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

Author
item Travadon, Renaud - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
item Lawrence, Daniel - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
item Rooney-latham, Suzanne - CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
item Gubler, W. Douglas - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
item Rolshausen, Philippe - UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
item Baumgartner, Kendra

Submitted to: Fungal Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/9/2014
Publication Date: 1/1/2015
Publication URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187861461400172X
Citation: Travadon, R., Lawrence, D., Rooney-Latham, S., Gubler, W., Rolshausen, P.E., Baumgartner, K. 2015. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America. Fungal Biology. 119:53-66.

Interpretive Summary: A relatively new group of trunk pathogens, species in the fungal genus Cadophora, have recently been reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. They have long been overlooked as trunk pathogens because the species are difficult to differentiate in the lab, and with a poor understanding of each species comes even greater confusion about which ones are pathogens. To further complicate the matter, Cadophora species are frequently isolated from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and so their role as main pathogens or secondary colonizers is unclear. Accordingly, we characterized 37 Cadophora isolates from 12 states or provinces in North America, based on molecular and morphological comparisons, and their pathogenicity. Molecular analysis of DNA sequences (ITS, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, beta-tubulin) was most informative in distinguishing two known species (C. luteo-olivacea, C. melinii) and three newly-described species (C. orientamericana, C. novi-eboraci, and C. spadicis). Restricted to the northeastern US were C. orientamericana, C. novi-eboraci, and C. spadicis, whereas C. luteo-olivacea was only recovered from California. C. melinii was present both in California and Ontario, Canada. Morphological characterization was less informative, due to significant overlap in dimensions of conidia, hyphae, conidiophores, and conidiogenous cells. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the presence of wood lesions after 24 months incubation, and suggest that Cadophora species may have a role as trunk pathogens in grape-growing regions of North America.

Technical Abstract: Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of its ability to cause wood lesions/ discoloration in pathogenicity tests, suggest that C. luteo-olivacea is part of the trunk pathogen complex. In North America, little is known regarding the diversity, geographic distribution, and roles of Cadophora species as trunk pathogens. Accordingly, we characterized 37 Cadophora isolates from 12 states or provinces in North America, based on molecular and morphological comparisons, and their pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis of three loci (ITS, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, beta-tubulin) was most informative in distinguishing two known species (C. luteo-olivacea, C. melinii) and three newly-described species (C. orientamericana, C. novi-eboraci, and C. spadicis). Restricted to the northeastern US were C. orientamericana, C. novi-eboraci, and C. spadicis, whereas C. luteo-olivacea was only recovered from California. C. melinii was present both in California and Ontario, Canada. Morphological characterization was less informative, due to significant overlap in dimensions of conidia, hyphae, conidiophores, and conidiogenous cells. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the presence of wood lesions after 24 months incubation, and suggest that Cadophora species may have a role as trunk pathogens in grape-growing regions of North America.