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Location: Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research

Title: A Review of Knowledge Gaps and Tools for Orbivirus Research

item Drolet, Barbara
item VAN RIJN, PIET - University Of Georgia
item HOWERTH, ELIZABETH - University Of Georgia
item BEER, MARTIN - Central Veterinary Institute
item MERTENS, PETER - Central Veterinary Institute

Submitted to: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2015
Publication Date: 6/1/2015
Citation: Drolet, B.S., Van Rijn, P.A., Howerth, E., Beer, M., Mertens, P.P. 2015. A review of knowledge gaps and tools for orbivirus research. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 15(6):339-347.

Interpretive Summary: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) have caused disease throughout the world in domestic livestock and wildlife for hundreds of years. Recently, scientists and livestock producers have had increased interest in these diseases because several new types of both these viruses have been found where they were not expected. Since 1999, 10 new types of BTV have been discovered in the U.S. It is critical that we learn more about these viruses, the insects that transmit them, and the animals they infect, to better understand outbreaks in terms of disease risk, rapid diagnosis of suspect animals, and control strategies. This review is based on a gap analysis workshop composed of international experts on Orbiviruses conducted in 2013.

Technical Abstract: Although recognized as causing emerging and re-emerging disease outbreaks world-wide since the late 1800’s, there has been growing interest in the U.S. and Europe in recent years in orbiviruses, their insect vectors, and the diseases they cause in domestic livestock and wildlife. This is due, in part, to the emergence of Bluetongue (BT) in Northern Europe in 2006-2007 resulting in a devastating outbreak, as well as severe BT outbreaks in sheep and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) outbreaks in deer and cattle in the U.S. Of notable concern is the isolation of as many as 10 new BT virus (BTV) serotypes in the U.S. since 1999 and their associated unknowns such as route of introduction, virulence to mammals, and indigenous competent vectors. This review, based on a gap analysis workshop composed of international experts on Orbiviruses conducted in 2013, gives a global perspective of current basic virological understanding of orbiviruses, with particular attention to BTV and the closely related epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), and identifies a multitude of basic virology research gaps, critical for predicting and preventing outbreaks.