|Arthur, Franklin - Frank|
|Starkus, Laura - University Of Arkansas|
|Mckay, Tanja - University Of Arkansas|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/23/2014
Publication Date: 3/15/2015
Citation: Arthur, F.H., Starkus, L.A., Mckay, T. 2015. Effects of flour and milling debris on efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Economic Entomology. 108(2):811-825. doi: 10.1093/jee/tov015.
Interpretive Summary: Contact insecticides are often used as part of pest management programs for stored product insects inside mills and processing facilities. However, there is little information available on how accumulated food material and milling debris on a treated surface will affect performance of insecticides that have been applied to that surface. We treated concrete test arenas with the contact insecticide Tempo® and then flour remained on the arenas for up to 8 weeks. The longer the flour was allowed to sit the more time it took for adult red flour beetles to be knocked down and incapacitated on the surface. In field tests, the presence of accumulated milling debris resulted in increased time required for 100% incapacitation on the surface. Results show that management of flour beetles can be improved with increased cleaning and sanitation, and managers can use this information to increase effectiveness of insect management programs.
Technical Abstract: Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2 gave effective control for 8 weeks, regardless of whether or not the concrete was sealed prior to application or the presence of flour contamination. However, with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2, the flour apparently absorbed the insecticide residues from the treated surface, and sealing the concrete did not have a beneficial effect on efficacy. Two field studies with the low label rate were conducted during autumn of 2012 and 2013 and summer of 2013, using only unsealed concrete. Accumulated milling debris caused a reduction in efficacy in the autumn studies, as shown by increased time to 100% knockdown, decreased mortality, and decreased residual efficacy. There was no such corresponding decrease in the summer study. Overall, results of both studies show that accumulated food and milling debris can absorb residue of beta-cyfluthrin from a treated surface and have a negative impact on residual efficacy, particularly with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2.