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Research Project: INTEGRATED DRAINAGE WATER & AGRONOMIC MGMT STRATEGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION & SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN THE MIDWEST U.S.

Location: Soil Drainage Research

Title: Subsurface investigation with ground penetrating radar

Author
item Allred, Barry
item Martinez, Luis - Rene
item MCCOY, EDWARD - The Ohio State University

Submitted to: Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/31/2014
Publication Date: 8/6/2014
Citation: Allred, B.J., Martinez, L.R., Mccoy, E.L. 2014. Subsurface investigation with ground penetrating radar. Symposium Proceedings. Proceedings for the 2014 OTF Turfgrass Research Field Day. Columbus, OH. pp. 36-39.

Interpretive Summary: Golf course superintendents and architects need non-destructive methods to obtain subsurface information on golf course greens, especially in regard to constructed soil layer thicknesses/depths and drainage pipe patterns. This information can in turn be used for quality control of newly built greens and for determining if an older green needs to be renovated. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) may be able to provide this information. Ground penetrating radar data was collected on a small test plot at the OTF/OSU Turfgrass Research & Education Facility in Columbus, Ohio. This test plot was built to USGA standards for a golf course green, with a constructed sand layer just beneath the surface overlying a gravel layer that in turn, overlies native soil. Drainage pipes were installed at the base, within trenches cut into the native soil. A GPR system using antennas with four different low to high frequencies, 200 MHz, 270 MHz, 400 MHz, and 900 MHz, was tested. Low frequency antennas detect deeper features the best, while high frequency antennas detect the shallower features the best. Consequently, the overall results of this study indicated that detection of the deeper drainage pipes was best accomplished by the lower frequency 200 MHz and 270 MHz antennas. Conversely, the higher frequency 400 MHz and 900 MHZ antennas provided better resolution for the shallower base of the sand layer. The 270 MHz and 400 MHz antennas appear to be the better choice for detecting the test plot divider and resolving the base of the gravel layer. In summary, the data collected at this test plot indicates that ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be effectively used to obtain important information on subsurface features present within golf course greens and upper-tier athletic fields.

Technical Abstract: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data was collected on a small test plot at the OTF/OSU Turfgrass Research & Education Facility in Columbus, Ohio. This test plot was built to USGA standards for a golf course green, with a constructed sand layer just beneath the surface overlying a gravel layer, that in turn, overlies native soil. Drainage pipes were installed at the base, within trenches cut into the native soil. A GPR system using antennas with 200 MHz, 270 MHz, 400 MHz, and 900 MHz center frequencies was tested. The GPR data for each antenna was collected on a 33 ft x 52.5 ft (10 m x 16 m) grid of north-south and east-west transects. Adjacent parallel transects were spaced 3.3 ft (1 m) apart. Ground penetrating radar depth profiles and reflected energy maps were generated from data collected by each of the four antennas. Overall results indicate that detection of the deeper drainage pipes was best accomplished by the lower frequency 200 MHz and 270 MHz antennas. Conversely, the higher frequency 400 MHz and 900 MHZ antennas provided better resolution for the shallower base of the sand layer. The 270 MHz and 400 MHz antennas appear to be the better choice for detecting the test plot divider and resolving the base of the gravel layer. In summary, the data collected at this test plot indicates that ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be effectively used to obtain important information on subsurface features present within golf course greens and upper-tier athletic fields.