Location: Agroecosystem Management ResearchTitle: Agronomic and environmental aspects of diazotrophic bacteria in irrigated rice fields
|Pittol, Michele - UNIVERSIDADE DO VALE DO RIO DOS SINOS (UNISINOS)|
|Valiati, Victor Hugo - UNIVERSIDADE DO VALE DO RIO DOS SINOS (UNISINOS)|
|Fiuza, Lidia Mariana - UNIVERSIDADE DO VALE DO RIO DOS SINOS (UNISINOS)|
Submitted to: Annals of Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/11/2015
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: This article gives an overview of helpful, nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in rice production systems, with a focus on how to use these bacteria to improve yields in irrigated rice. The paper describes the different kinds of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in rice production systems, and the different physical, chemical, and agronomic factors that influence the growth of these bacteria. The use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as biofertilizers is discussed, along with the challenges for both biofertilizers and synthetic fertilizers. As with any agronomic input, the goal of biofertilizer use is to increase grain yield and improve grain quality. The challenges facing the implementation of biofertilizers in industrially managed rice production is compared to other large-scale use of bacteria in food production. The dairy and wine industries provide examples of how to harness the desired qualities of naturally occurring microbial interactions, and apply them in a systematic way. Bioengineering of both nitrogen-fixing bacteria and rice plants is discussed, and the paper concludes that recent advances are promising and applied field studies are demonstrating the potential to decrease the use of N-fertilizers while maintaining yields by using biofertilizers and green manures containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An additional conclusion is that it is imperative for the research be translated into practical applications that can be implemented by farmers in a cost-effective way.
Technical Abstract: This article provides an overview of the free-living and plant-associated nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities in irrigated rice fields, with a focus on describing the drivers affecting community assemblages in this soil-water-plant-atmosphere system. Theoretical and technical advances in non-legume nitrogen fixation provide modern insights into how to handle key process to improve the management of irrigated rice systems. These changes are leading towards a cleaner path that maintains sustainability while simultaneously improving crop production targets. In addition, the use of nitrogen-fixing bacterial inoculants as biofertilizers will be discussed, and challenges involved with engineering nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in non-legume agroecosystems such as irrigated rice paddys will be reviewed.