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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Miami, Florida » Subtropical Horticulture Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #308856

Title: Cubeb oil lures:terpenoid emissions, trapping efficacy, and longevity for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae)

item Kendra, Paul
item Niogret, Jerome
item Montgomery, Wayne
item DEYRUP, MARK - Archbold Biological Station
item Epsky, Nancy

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/21/2014
Publication Date: 2/1/2015
Citation: Kendra, P.E., Niogret, J., Montgomery, W.S., Deyrup, M.A., Epsky, N.D. 2015. Cubeb oil lures:terpenoid emissions, trapping efficacy, and longevity for attraction of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 108(1):350-361.

Interpretive Summary: The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB) is an exotic wood-boring pest that transmits laurel wilt, a deadly fungal disease of American trees in the laurel family (Lauraceae), including native forest species and commercial avocado. Manuka oil lures are currently used for detection of RAB, but previous research by scientists at the USDA-ARS (Miami, FL) found that these lures had a short field life in Florida. Therefore, the USDA-ARS, in collaboration with Archbold Biological Station (Lake Placid, FL), conducted research to compare efficacy of manuka, cubeb, and phoebe lures for attraction of RAB. In addition, chemical emissions were measured from the lures. Manuka lures lost attraction after 3 weeks, and caught the fewest beetles. Phoebe and cubeb lures caught RAB for 12 weeks, but overall captures were higher with cubeb. The results indicate that cubeb lures are the most effective tool available for detection of RAB, with a field life of 3 months due to extended, low release of attractants (a-copaene and a-cubebene). This information will benefit action agencies that monitor for RAB by providing a more attractive, longer lasting lure for better pest detection.

Technical Abstract: Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-borer and the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus that causes laurel wilt. This lethal disease has decimated native redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) throughout southeastern U.S. forests, and currently threatens avocado (P. americana) in Florida. To curtail the spread of laurel wilt, effective attractants are needed for early detection of the vector. Phoebe oil lures were the best known attractant for X. glabratus, but they are no longer available. The current approved detection system uses manuka oil lures, but our previous research indicated that manuka lures have a short field life in Florida. Recently, cubeb oil was identified as a new attractant for X. glabratus, and cubeb bubble lures are now available commercially. This study compared the trapping efficacy and field longevity of commercial cubeb, manuka, and phoebe lures (in storage since 2010) over a 12-wk period in south Florida. In addition, terpenoid emissions were quantified from cubeb and manuka lures aged outdoors for 12 wk. Captures were comparable with all three lures for 3 wk, but by 4 wk, captures with manuka were significantly less. Equivalent captures were obtained with cubeb and phoebe lures for 7 wk, but captures with cubeb were significantly greater from 8-12 wk. Our results indicate that cubeb bubble lures are the most effective tool currently available for detection of X. glabratus, with a field life up to 3 months due to extended, low release of attractive sesquiterpenes, primarily a-copaene and a-cubebene.