Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/18/2014
Publication Date: 12/15/2014
Citation: Silveira, J.Q., Cesar, T.B., Manthey, J.A., Baldwin, E.A., Bai, J., Raithore, S. 2014. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62:12576-12584. Interpretive Summary: Orange juice was prepared by either commercial methods or as fresh squeezed. Participants in a human trial drank each juice, and over a 24 h period the urine of the participants was collected, and the metabolites of key chemicals in the orange juices were analyzed. These metabolites were identified by elaborate analytical instrumentation, and these identifications allowed the relative fates of these compounds in the human body to be studied. The results show that the different fruit processing methods did not affect the rates or amounts of absorption of key phenolic nutrients in humans.
Technical Abstract: Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids known to be beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (FOJ) and commercially processed (POJ), which differed in their amounts of soluble and insoluble forms of these compounds. The concentrations of hesperidin and narirutin in the POJ were 3.2 and 6.6 times higher than in the FOJ, and while these compounds occurred largely precipitated in the juice cloud of the POJ, they were nearly completely soluble in the FOJ. Healthy subjects including 12 men and 12 women, aged 27±6, with a BMI of 24±3 kg m-2 consumed 11.5 mL kg-1 body weight of FOJ, and after an interval of 30 days, consumed the same quantity of POJ. Plasma and urine samples were collected from each subject at specific time points over a 24 h period after juice consumption. The average doses of hesperidin and narirutin in the POJ were 199 µmol and 49 µmol respectively, while in the FOJ the averages doses were 61 µmol and 7.5 µmol, respectively. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the Tmax of the pharmacokinetic curves for the metabolites of hesperidin and narirutin following the consumption of the two types of juices, and corrected for differences in doses in the POJ and FOJ, there were also no significant differences in the AUC and Cmax values and percent absorption of these compounds.