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ARS Home » Plains Area » Manhattan, Kansas » Center for Grain and Animal Health Research » ABADRU » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #308016

Research Project: BLUETONGUE VIRUS PATHOGENESIS, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AND CONTROL MEASURES

Location: Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research

Title: Vaccines for prevention of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in livestock: A North American perspective

Author
item Mcvey, D Scott - Scott
item Maclachlan, N - University Of California Agriculture And Natural Resources (UCANR)

Submitted to: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/11/2014
Publication Date: 6/1/2015
Citation: Mcvey, D.S., Maclachlan, N.J. 2015. Vaccines for prevention of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in livestock: A North American perspective. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 15(6):385-396.

Interpretive Summary: Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) are non-contagious, insect transmitted diseases of domestic and wild ruminants caused by related but distinct viruses. Both BT (BTV) and EHD (EHDV) viruses cause hemorrhagic fevers in susceptible ruminants; however BT is principally a disease of domestic livestock whereas EHD is principally a disease of certain species of wild, non-African ungulates, notably White-tailed deer. The live-attenuated (modified live virus [MLV]) vaccines available in the United States (U.S.) for use in small ruminant livestock do provide good protection against clinical disease following infection with the homologous virus serotype. Although there is increasing justification that use of MLV vaccines should be avoided if possible, these are the only vaccines currently available in the U.S. There are no currently licensed vaccines available for EHD in the U.S. However, there are autogenous vaccines in use by captive cervid operations. If there is a need to rapidly develop a vaccine to meet an emerging crisis associated with either BTV or EHDV infections, development of an inactivated virus vaccine in a conventional adjuvanted formulation will likely be required. With two doses of vaccine (and in some instances just one dose), inactivated vaccines can provide substantial immunity to the epizootic serotype of either BTV or EHDV. There are significant gaps in our scientific knowledge and available countermeasures to control an outbreak of orbivirus-induced disease, whether BT or EHD. It is concluded that a coordinated national research strategy to achieve a more optimal vaccine profile should be developed.

Technical Abstract: Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) are non-contagious, insect transmitted diseases of domestic and wild ruminants caused by related but distinct viruses. Both BT (BTV) and EHD (EHDV) viruses cause hemorrhagic fevers in susceptible ruminants; however BT is principally a disease of domestic livestock whereas EHD is principally a disease of certain species of wild, non-African ungulates, notably White-tailed deer. The live-attenuated (modified live virus [MLV]) vaccines available in the United States (U.S.) for use in small ruminant livestock do provide good protection against clinical disease following infection with the homologous virus serotype. Although there is increasing justification that use of MLV vaccines should be avoided if possible, these are the only vaccines currently available in the U.S. Specifically, MLVs are used in California to protect sheep against infection with BTV serotypes 10, 11 and 17, and a MLV to BTV serotype 10 is licensed for use in sheep throughout the U.S. These MLV vaccines may need to continue to be used in the immediate future for protective immunization of sheep and goats against BT. There are no currently licensed vaccines available for EHD in the U.S. If there is a need to rapidly develop a vaccine to meet an emerging crisis associated with either BTV or EHDV infections, development of an inactivated virus vaccine in a conventional adjuvanted formulation will likely be required. With two doses of vaccine (and in some instances just one dose), inactivated vaccines can provide substantial immunity to the epizootic serotype of either BTV or EHDV. This strategy is similar to that used in the 2006-2008 BTV serotype 8 outbreaks in northern Europe which provided vaccine to the field within 2 years of the initial incursion (by 2008). There are significant gaps in our scientific knowledge and available countermeasures to control an outbreak of orbivirus-induced disease, whether BT or EHD. It is concluded that a coordinated national research strategy to achieve a more optimal vaccine profile should be developed.