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Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Support the Global Control and Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus(FMDV)

Location: Foreign Animal Disease Research

Title: Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014

Author
item BRITO, BARBARA - University Of Minnesota
item Rodriguez, Luis
item HAMMOND, JEF - Nsw Department Of Primary Industries
item PINTO, J - Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations (FAO)
item PEREZ, ANDRES - University Of Minnesota

Submitted to: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/7/2015
Publication Date: 5/20/2015
Citation: Brito, B.P., Rodriguez, L.L., Hammond, J., Pinto, J., Perez, A.M. 2015. Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. DOI: 10.1111.tbed.12373.

Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an economically devastating disease in livestock in large parts of the world. This virus very variable with seven varieties (A,O,C, Asia, Sat1, Sat2 and Sat3) and multiple subtypes occurring in different geographical regions (called regional virus pools). Some of these subtypes behave differently, and sometimes spread beyond areas where they normally circulate. New viruses emerge and die-off over the course of years and decades. The objective of this paper is to review the most significant events in FMDV occurrence that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. The summary of important information regarding these disease events reported here will contribute to the planning of prevention and control strategies against FMDV both in regions where this virus occurs and in virus-free regions of the world.

Technical Abstract: The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has seven different serotypes. Within each serotype there is a diversity of genetic lineages, subtypes and strains. Some of these strains behave differently and sometimes spread beyond the endemic areas where they normally circulate. Lineages emergence and die-off have been observed over the course of years and decades. The objective of this paper is to review the most significant FMD epidemiological events that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. Severe epidemics were caused by strain O/Asia/Mya-98 FMDV in Japan and South Korea in 2010. In India, the most important event was the re-emergence of lineage O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 in 2008, which replaced Pan Asia lineage and became the dominant strain during the past 6 years. Noticeable, this lineage, normally restricted to India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, was also found in Saudi Arabia and Libya in 2013. In 2011, FMDV positive wild boars were found in Bulgaria, following 12 outbreaks in livestock infected with FMDV/O/Pan Asia 2. Another remarkable event was the incursion of SAT 2 topotype VII FMDV into Egypt and the Palestinian Autonomous Territories in 2012, which happened after political and social disturbances in the region. In the Middle East, emergence of Asia 1 Sindh-08 lineage has been of concern due to low cross protection with vaccine antigens used in the region. In Eastern Africa, a serologic study showed evidence for the presence of FMDV serotype C, which was though to be extinct, and was not detected since 2005 in Kenya. In South Africa and Botswana, a number of SAT serotypes FMDV incursions have been reported in the FMD-free zones. In South America, one outbreak of FMDV serotype O/Euro-SA topotype was reported in Paraguay in 2011, a country that was at the time recognized as FMD free with vaccination. The country regained the FMD-free status in 2013. The summary of important epidemiological events reported here will contribute to the planning of FMD prevention and control strategies both in endemically-affected and free regions of the world.