Skip to main content
ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #307444

Title: Utilization of healthy U.S. commodity oils in frying oil and in margarine and spread products

item Hwang, Hong-Sik

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/25/2014
Publication Date: 8/27/2014
Citation: Hwang, H. 2014. Utilization of healthy U.S. commodity oils in frying oil and in margarine and spread products [abstract]. Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: For utilization of U.S. commodity oils in frying, researches were conducted to develop new natural antioxidants. Use of vegetable oils for frying is typically limited by lack of oxidative stability and requires strong antioxidants to suppress oxidation and to protect nutritional quality of highly reactive polyunsaturated fatty acids. Several lignans and sesamol were evaluated for the radical scavenging ability and sesamol showed the strongest radical scavenging ability at room temperature. However, when it was evaluated in soybean oil at frying temperature, sesamol did not show very impressive results. One of the major reasons for the inferior antioxidant activity of sesamol at elevated temperatures would be its evaporation. An innovative method was developed to reduce the volatility of sesamol. It was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant could reduce volatility of the antioxidant at frying temperature. Twenty two additives were examined with thermogravity analysis (TGA) and found to effective in reducing the volatility of sesamol. Some of them improved the antioxidant activity of sesamol during heating of soybean oil at 180 °C. Correlation analyses indicated that the reduced volatility improved the antioxidant activity of sesamol. It is believed that this innovative method can be applied to many other natural and synthetic antioxidants. The second part of this presentation involves utilization of vegetable oils for healthy margarines and spreads containing no trans fats and very low contents of saturated fats. Many organogelators were evaluated for their abilities to replace solid fats containing high contents of saturated fats and trans fats. Among them, three plant waxes, sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax showed most promising properties and were further examined in a margarine formulation. Firmness of the margarine containing 2-6% sunflower wax in soybean oil was similar to that of margarine containing 18-30% hydrogenated soybean oil in soybean oil. The firmness of commercial spread could be achieved with about 2% sunflower wax and that of commercial margarine could be achieved with about 10% of sunflower wax in the margarine formulation. A variety of other healthy plant oils were also tested and effects of the fatty acid composition and polar compounds in oil on the firmness of margarine were studied. Dropping point, DSC and solid fat content of the new margarine were also measured.