Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/25/2013
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: the emphasis has shifted from preventing nutrient deficiencies to reducing chronic disease risk and in addition to providing guidance for daily intakes, it also includes recommendations for maximum upper levels at which no adverse health outcomes would be expected, termed tolerable upper intake levels (ULs)The DRI’s were established during the mid-1990’s through the mid-2000’s by a series of committees that included both American and Canadian members under the auspices of the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, and the National Academies of Science, in collaboration with Heath Canada. Separate committees were established for the following subcategories of nutrients: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride; thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline; vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids; vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc; energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids; and water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Depending on the available data for each nutrient, their DRI’s are comprised of Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) or Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL value). In the case of macronutrients, there is an alternate category of recommendation, the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR). This latter category was established because evidence indicated that for energy containing nutrients optimal health outcomes were observed over a range of intakes. When it appears an adequate body of new data is available for a specific nutrient or group of nutrients to warrant a reassessment of the DRI values, the data are reviewed and updated if necessary. Most recently, in 2010 a committee was convened to review the data for vitamin D and calcium. To facilitate this process a systematic review was commissioned by the IOM for their use. On the basis of the committee’s deliberations, modification were made to the DRI’s for these nutrients.