|LIU, YUNTAO - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|BLUMBERG, JEFFREY - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|CHEN, C-Y OLIVER - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/26/2014
Publication Date: 2/19/2014
Citation: Liu, Y., Blumberg, J.B., Chen, C. 2014. Quantification and bioaccessibility of California pistachio bioactives. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62:1550-1556.
Interpretive Summary: Increased nut consumption is now recommended through dietary guidelines due to its association with lower rates of overweight and obesity and also a reduced risk of heart disease. Globally, pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) are among the most popular and commercially valuable tree nuts because of their traditional use, appealing texture, and unique flavor. The health benefits of pistachios may be partly attributed to their content of vitamins and other bioactive compounds, including vitamin E, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and flavonoids. However, the content of these nutrients in pistachios has not previously been quantified in a methodical fashion. The objective of this study was to optimize extraction protocols for fat soluble nutrients in pistachios and then quantify the content of 21 bioactive compounds in the skin, nutmeat, and whole nut of California pistachios. The dominant bioactives in whole pistachios were: luteolin, gamma-tocopherol, chlorophyll, myricetin, catechin, lutein, and cyanidin-3-galactose. Most of the phenolic compounds were present in the nut skin, while the fat soluble nutrients were found predominantly in the nutmeat. This information is important for updating USDA nutrient databases and for informing the design of new clinical studies with pistachios.
Technical Abstract: The content of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolics, and tocols in pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) has not been methodically quantified. The objective of this study was to first optimize extraction protocols for lipophilic nutrients and then quantify the content of two phenolic acids, nine flavonoids, four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three tocols in the skin, nutmeat, and whole nut of California pistachios. The dominant bioactives in whole pistachios are lutein [42.35 microgram/g fresh weight (FW)], chlorophyll a (142.24 microgram/g FW), gamma-tocopherol (182.20 microgram/g FW), flavan-3-ols (catechins) (199.18 microgram/g FW), luteolin (217.89 microgram/g FW), myricetin (135.18 microgram/g FW), and cyanidin-3-galactose (38.34 microgram/g FW) in each nutrient class. Most phenolics are present in the skin, while the lipophilic nutrients are dominantly present in the nutmeat. Digestion with a gastrointestinal mimic showed <10% of most hydrophilic compounds are released from pistachio matrices. In conclusion, 9 lipophilic and 11 hydrophilic bioactives in pistachios are systematically quantified.