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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Griffin, Georgia » Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #305687

Research Project: Conservation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Plant Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection

Author
item Wang, Ming
item Tonnis, Brandon
item Pinnow, David
item Davis, Jerry - University Of Georgia
item Morris, John - Brad
item Pederson, Gary

Submitted to: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/22/2014
Publication Date: 11/3/2014
Citation: Wang, M.L., Tonnis, B.D., Pinnow, D.L., Davis, J., Morris, J.B., Pederson, G.A. 2014. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection.[abstract] ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting. Paper No. 115-4.

Interpretive Summary: Sesame is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition for the entire USDA collection were quantified from germplasm seeds by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC). There was a significant variation in seed weight ranging from 0.09 to 0.50 g/100 seeds with an average of 0.32g. The average oil content was 54.9% ranging from 25.7 to 65.5%. The sesame seeds mainly contained four major fatty acids: 44.84% linoleic acid (C18:2), 39.46% oleic acid (C18:1), and 9.02% palmitic acid (C16:0), and 5.16% palmitoleic acid (C16:1). Significant variation was also detected in these four major fatty acids. Based on the morphology observation and chemical analysis, at least two accessions were misnamed and need to be reclassified. The results obtained from this study may be useful for sesame improvement in breeding programs and further germplasm collection in curation and exchange programs.

Technical Abstract: Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition for the entire USDA collection were quantified from germplasm seeds by NMR and GC. There was a significant variation in seed weight ranging from 0.09 to 0.50 g/100 seeds with an average of 0.32g. The average oil content was 54.9% ranging from 25.7 to 65.5%. The sesame seeds mainly contained four major fatty acids: 44.84% linoleic acid (C18:2), 39.46% oleic acid (C18:1), and 9.02% palmitic acid (C16:0), and 5.16% palmitoleic acid (C16:1). Significant variation was also detected in these four major fatty acids. Based on the morphology observation and chemical analysis, at least two accessions were misnamed and need to be reclassified. The results obtained from this study may be useful for sesame improvement in breeding programs and further germplasm collection in curation and exchange programs.