Skip to main content
ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #305604

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: Surveillance for influenza virus subtypes H1, H2 and H3 among wild birds in Ukraine in 2006-2012

Author
item Muzyka, Denys - National Scientific Center
item Pantin-jackwood, Mary
item Stegniy, Borys - National Scientific Center

Submitted to: European Scientific Working Group on Influenza
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/30/2014
Publication Date: 9/14/2014
Citation: Muzyka, D., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Stegniy, B. 2014. Surveillance for influenza virus subtypes H1, H2 and H3 among wild birds in Ukraine in 2006-2012 [abstract]. Fifth ESWI (European Scientific Working Group on Influenza) Influenza Conference, September 14-17, 2014, Riga, Latvia. CDROM.

Interpretive Summary: Influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting humans, other mammals and birds. Influenza virus of H1, H2, and H3 subtypes circulate in humans and cause seasonal influenza. Similar subtypes are also circulating in the natural reservoir, wild aquatic birds, and under certain conditions these avian influenza viruses (AIV) can be donors of genes for new epidemic viruses. In this study, monitoring of circulating AIV of H1, H2 and H3 subtypes was conducted in 2006-2012 in different regions of Ukraine. Serology for the detection of influenza antibodies in serum and egg yolk was conducted with samples collected from 946 wild birds of 44 species; and swab samples from 6,281 wild birds of 84 species and 27 families were examined for the presence of virus. Antibodies against the H1, H2, and H3 subtypes were found in many different species of birds including Dunlins, Grey Plovers, Sandpipers, Mute Swan, Mallards, Song Thrush, Blackbird, Jay, Great Tit, Slender-billed Gull, Yellow-legged Gull, Coot and Common Tern. Ninety eight hemagglutinating viruses were isolated from the swabs, including 23 isolates of avian paramyxovirus and 69 AIV. Of 69 avian influenza virus isolated, 8 were H1 subtype, 5 subtype H3N8, and 3 viruses were H2 subtype. H1 and H2 subtypes of AIV were identified during autumn migration and wintering only, and H3 influenza virus during autumn migration only. No virus was isolated during spring migration, nesting and after nesting movements. These results demonstrate that H1, H2 and H3 subtypes of AIV circulate widely in wild waterfowl.

Technical Abstract: Background: Influenza is one of the most important and unpredictable diseases of humans, other mammals and birds. Influenza virus of H1, H2, and H3 subtypes circulate in humans and cause seasonal influenza. Similar subtypes are also circulating in the natural reservoir, wild aquatic birds, and under certain conditions these viruses circulating in wild birds can be donors of genes for new epidemic viruses. In this study, we examined for the evidence of circulating H1, H2 and H3 influenza viruses in wild birds of various types in Ukraine. Methods: Monitoring of circulating influenza virus of H1, H2 and H3 subtypes was conducted in 2006-2012 in different regions of Ukraine. Serology for the detection of influenza antibodies was conducted with samples collected from 946 wild birds of 44 species, and swab samples from 6,281 wild birds of 84 species and 27 families were examined for the presence of virus. All studies were performed as recommended by the OIE. Results: 6.06% of Dunlin, 5.88% of Grey Plover, 14.28 % of Curlew Sandpiper, 40% of Broad-billed Sandpiper in 2006, 15.38 % of Mute Swan in 2008 and 6.97% of mallards in 2011 had antibodies to H1 influenza virus in serum. Also, antibodies were found in egg yolks of Song Thrush, Blackbird, and Jay in 2006, and 3.22 - 4.16% in mallard egg yolks in 2009. Antibodies to H2 AIV were found in 2006, 2009 and 2011 in serum of 13.04%, 1.61%, 1.55-3.04% of mallards respectively, and in egg yolks of Song Thrush, Great Tit, Slender-billed Gull and egg yolks of mallards (12.5%) in 2006. Antibodies to H3 AIV were found in 2006 in egg yolks of Yellow-legged Gull (23.07%), in 2007 in yolks of Coot (33.3%) and Grey Plover (14.28%), in 2008 in yolks of Common Tern, and in 2009 in blood serum of mallards (12.90%). Ninety eight hemagglutinating viruses were isolated, including 23 isolates of avian paramyxovirus and 69 AIV. Of these AIV, 8 were H1 subtype (H1N1 - 7 isolates, H1N2 – 1 isolate), 5 subtype H3N8, and only 3 viruses H2 subtype (H2N3 - 2 isolates, H2N? –1 isolate). These viruses were isolated from wild waterfowl of two types, Mallard and Shelduck. H1 and H2 subtypes of Influenza viruses were identified during autumn migration and wintering only, and H3 influenza virus during autumn migration only. No virus was isolated during spring migration, nesting and after nesting movements. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that H1, H2 and H3 subtypes of AIV circulate widely in wild waterfowl. Particular attention should be paid to the circulation in natural settings of H2 influenza viruses which have not been reported in humans for many years.