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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Cereal Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #305536

Research Project: Enhancement of Hard Spring Wheat, Durum, and Oat Quality

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat

Author
item Baasandorj, Tsogtbayar - North Dakota State University
item Manthey, Frank - North Dakota State University
item Ohm, Jae-bom
item Simsek, Senay - North Dakota State University

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/29/2014
Publication Date: 1/20/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60172
Citation: Baasandorj, T., Ohm, J.-B., Manthey, F., Simsek, S. 2015. Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry. 92(1):81-87.

Interpretive Summary: Optimization of flour yield and quality is important in wheat milling industry. Flour yield from roller mills can be reduced by having a mixture of wheat seeds with different size. Specifically, small seeds adversely affect flour yield and refinement. The objective of this study was to determine how seed size and mill type influence flour milling yield and breadmaking quality. A mixture of hard red spring wheat samples was segregated, based on seed size, into large, medium, and small fractions, and unsorted one. The four seed fractions were milled on three different experimental roller milling instruments: Brabender Quadrumat. Jr., Quadrumat. Sr., and Buhler type MLU-202. Milling yield was different for large, medium, and small fractions across mills. Large seeds had consistently higher flour yield than small seeds across mills, with the Quadrumat Jr. mill showing the lowest flour yield. Flour protein content and composition were different according to mill type and seed size. When compared to large seed fraction, flour milled from small seed fraction contained higher protein content, which mainly resulted from increase of gliadins, the alcohol soluble protein fraction in flour. Small seed flour also contained more quantity of large size protein molecules that were not soluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer solution. The gliadins and the large size protein molecules could contribute to increasing bread loaf volume and dough strength for small seed flour, respectively. Overall, small seeds could contribute to enhancing flour breadmaking quality while having detrimental effect on milling yield.

Technical Abstract: Optimization of flour yield and quality is important in the milling industry. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of kernel size and mill type on flour yield and end-use quality. A hard red spring wheat composite sample was segregated, based on kernel size, into large, medium, and small kernels, and unsorted kernels. The four fractions were milled on three laboratory roller mills: Brabender Quadrumat. Jr., Quadrumat. Sr., and Buhler type MLU-202. Large kernels had consistently higher flour yield than small kernels across mills, with the Quadrumat Jr. mill showing the lowest flour yield. Mill type and kernel size significantly affected variation in flour protein molecular weight distribution. When compared to large kernels, flour milled from small kernel fraction contained higher gliadin fractions and SDS unextractable high molecular weight polymeric proteins, which had positive correlations with bread loaf volume (r=0.61, p<0.05) and mixograph peak time (r=0.84, P<0.001), respectively. Overall, small kernels could contribute to enhancing flour breadmaking quality while having detrimental effect on milling yield.