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Title: Detection of permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States

item EIDEN, AMANDA - University Of Florida
item KAUFMAN, PHILLIP - University Of Florida
item OI, FAITH - University Of Florida
item Allan, Sandra - Sandy
item Miller, Robert

Submitted to: Journal of Medical Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/8/2015
Publication Date: 3/5/2015
Citation: Eiden, A.L., Kaufman, P.E., Oi, F.M., Allan, S.A., Miller, R. 2015. Detection of permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States. Journal of Medical Entomology. 52(3):429-436..

Interpretive Summary: The brown dog tick is a common pest associated with dogs world-wide and notorious for difficulty in controlling infestations inside houses and kennels. In addition to its nuisance status to dogs and potential for vectoring canine diseases, these ticks may also be pests to humans. Continued application of pesticides within home environments for tick control may negatively impact human health. In this study conducted with scientists at the Center for Medical, Veterinary and Agricultural Entomology in Gainesville, FL, ticks from indoor populations across Florida and Texas were obtained and evaluated for pesticide resistance. High to moderate resistance to permethrin resistance and tolerance to fipronil was verified in at least a third of the populations evaluated. This study provides evidence that alternative active ingredients of pesticide should be used tick control to enhance control efficacy and to reduce pesticide exposure for humans.

Technical Abstract: Permethrin is a commonly used acaricide for tick control on domestic animals and in residential environments, while fipronil use is restricted to on-animal treatment. Following widespread reports of permethrin and fipronil application failures to control indoor infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), the brown dog tick, 31 tick populations were obtained from Florida and Texas for acaricide resistance screening. These field-collected ticks from kennels and residential facilities were challenged with technical grade permethrin and fipronil to create dose response curves that were compared to an acaricide-susceptible strain. Permethrin resistance was successfully screened in nine populations, all of which were resistant or highly resistant. Tick susceptibility to fipronil was conducted on four populations, which were found to be tolerant, with resistance ratios below 10. This is the first documentation of R. sanguineus permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in the United States. Potential causes of resistance development and recommendations on future brown dog tick control management plans are discussed.