Submitted to: Animal Influenza Virus
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/13/2014
Publication Date: 10/13/2014
Citation: Kapczynski, D.R. 2014. Detection of cell mediated immune response to avian influenza viruses. In: Spackman, E., editor. Animal Influenza Virus. 2nd edition. New York, NY: Springer. p. 199-215.
Interpretive Summary: Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The adaptive immune responses can be divided into two main types, humoral and cellular. Humoral immunity includes the production of antibodies from bursal-derived cells (B-cells) that function in virus-neutralization and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) which is dependent on thymus-derived cells (T-cells). In birds, the measurement of CMI is critical to understanding the role and regulation of avian B- and T-cells following avian influenza virus (AIV) infection. The ability to measure CMI has steadily improved over the last few years, although few studies have examined its role in protection of birds against AIV. In this chapter we describe new techniques to allow for a greater understanding of CMI in birds.
Technical Abstract: In birds, lymphomyeloid tissues develop from epithelial (Bursa of Fabricus or thymus) or mesenchymal tissue which are populated by heamatopoietic stem cells. These stem cells develop directly into immunologically competent B (bursa) and T (thymus) cells. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a part of the adaptive immune response, which utilizes highly specific antigen receptors on B- and T- cells and that are generated by random processes by gene rearrangement to induce different mechanisms of immune reaction. B-cells are designed to interact with major histocompatibility class II molecules which present antigen for antibody production. The enumeration of the antigen-specific antibody-secreting B-cells, and not just antibody titers, is an important consideration for vaccine research. Avian T-cell functions are based on paradigms from previous work in mice and man, and generally share common mechanistic applications. This chapter will describe methods useful for measuring anti-viral CMI responses in chicken B- and T-cell populations following avian influenza virus (AIV) challenge.