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ARS Home » Midwest Area » East Lansing, Michigan » Sugarbeet and Bean Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #303889

Research Project: Genetic Enhancement of Dry Bean Nutritional and Processing Qualities

Location: Sugarbeet and Bean Research

Title: Evaluation of kidney bean yield and nitrogen fixation under low soil nitrogen

Author
item Cichy, Karen
item KAMFWA, KELVIN - Michigan State University
item KATUURAMU, DENNIS - Michigan State University

Submitted to: Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm Report
Publication Type: Experiment Station
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/30/2014
Publication Date: 2/18/2014
Citation: Cichy, K.A., Kamfwa, K., Katuuramu, D. 2014. Evaluation of kidney bean yield and nitrogen fixation under low soil nitrogen. Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm Report. p. 87-93..

Interpretive Summary: U.S. Kidney bean cultivars as a group have limited genetic diversity. They also require more intensive crop management and nitrogen fertilization than most other bean market classes. The objective of this study was to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seed yield in a diverse group of kidney lines. A trial was planted to evaluate 100 dark red, light red, and white kidney bean entries in a sandy soil with low total nitrogen (0.09%). The lines come mostly from the US and Canada, Puerto Rico, Africa, and some lines are from Central America, South America, and Europe. At flowering, shoot biomass was sampled to determine N concentration and the amount of N in a sample that derived from N fixation. Since the soil N level was low, it was expected that those lines that were better able to fix N would have higher plant N levels and seed yield, than those lines that were not effective at biological N fixation. While most of the top yielding lines were from the US or Canada, the 5th highest yielding line was from Tanzania. On average, cultivars from North America derived less of their total plant N from fixation as compared to cultivars from Africa, Central and South America, and Europe. This trial provides useful data to aid in selection of parental lines for kidney bean breeding.

Technical Abstract: U.S. Kidney bean cultivars as a group have limited genetic diversity. They also require more intensive crop management than most other bean market classes. The objective of this study was to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seed yield in a diverse group of kidney lines. A 250 line Andean bean trial was planted on June 6, 2013 at the Montcalm Research Farm with two replications per entry in a sandy soil low in total N (0.09%). The lines in the trial included numerous large seed types, including kidney, cranberry, yellow, and red mottled types. The data presented here is only for the 100 entries which were light red, dark red and white kidney seed types. The lines come mostly from the US and Canada, Puerto Rico, Africa, and to a lesser extent Central America, South America, and Europe. At flowering, shoot biomass was sampled for nitrogen concentration and the ratio of 15N/14N at the UC Davis Stable Isotope Facility. The amount of nitrogen in a sample that derived from N fixation was calculated. Two non nodulating bean lines, G51493nn and G51496nn were included as checks. The top yielding line of the study was US-WK-CBB-17. While most of the top yielding lines were from the US or Canada, the 5th highest yielding line was from Tanzania. On average, cultivars from North America derived less of their total plant nitrogen from fixation as compared to cultivars from Africa, Central and South America, and Europe. Seed yield was not correlated with nitrogen fixation capacity. This trial provides useful data to aid in selection of parental lines for kidney bean breeding.