|HADDAS, R - Kimron Veterinary Institute|
|SIMANOV, LUBA - Kimron Veterinary Institute|
|LUBLIN, AVISHAY - Kimron Veterinary Institute|
|REHMANI, S - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|WAJID, A - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|BIBI, TASRA - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|KHAN, T - University Of Karachi|
|YAQUB, T - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences|
|SETIYANINGSIH, S - Bogor Agricultural University|
Submitted to: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/30/2014
Publication Date: 11/20/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60573
Citation: Miller, P.J., Haddas, R., Simanov, L., Lublin, A., Rehmani, S.F., Wajid, A., Bibi, T., Khan, T.A., Yaqub, T., Setiyaningsih, S., Afonso, C.L. 2015. Identification of new sub-genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus with potential panzootic features. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 29:216-229.
Interpretive Summary: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) characterized by significant illness and mortality in vaccinated poultry. These viruses represent a significant threat to the U.S. The genetic characteristic of viruses from Indonesia, Pakistan, Israel were compared to historical samples and it was determined that those viruses may be part of new panzootic. New NDV strains from this panzootic do not appear to have originated directly from the current genotype VII NDV strains that are widely circulating in Asia and Africa, but are more related to the Indonesian NDV strains isolated from wild birds since the 80s. The co-evolution of at least three different sub-genotypes reported here and the apparent origin of some of those genotypes from NDV strains isolated from psittacines supports the importance of identifying and understanding the role of wild life reservoirs to predict and prevent new panzootics.
Technical Abstract: Strains of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with epizootic characteristics are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND). Significant illness and mortality in vaccinated poultry caused by highly related viruses of new sub-genotypes within genotypes VII and XIII suggest the existence of a fifth panzootic. Viruses of new sub-genotypes VIIh and VIIi do not appear to have originated directly from genotype VII NDV strains that are widely circulating elsewhere, but are more related to the Indonesian NDV strains isolated from wild birds since the 80s. Viruses from sub-genotype VIIh were isolated from Indonesia (2009-2010), Malaysia (2011), China (2011), and Cambodia (2011-2012) and are closely related to an Indonesian NDV strain isolated in 2007, APMV1/Chicken/Karangasem, Indonesia (Bali-01)/2007. Since 2011 and 2012 viruses from sub-genotype VIIi have been isolated from poultry production facilities, and occasionally from pet birds, throughout Indonesia, Pakistan and Israel. In Pakistan, the viruses of sub-genotype VIIi have replaced NDV strains of genotype XIII, which were commonly isolated in 2009-2011 and they have become the predominant sub-genotype causing ND outbreaks since 2012. In a similar fashion, the numbers of viruses of sub-genotype VIIi isolated in Israel increased in 2012 and viruses from this sub-genotype is now found as frequently as the previously predominant strains of sub-genotypes VIId and VIIb (from 2009 to 2012). All NDV strains of sub-genotype VIIi are approximately 99% identical to each other, and are more closely related to Indonesian strains isolated from 1988 through 1993 than to the recent strains of genotype VII, still circulating in the region. Similarly, in addition to the Pakistani NDV strains of the original genotype XIII (now called sub-genotype XIIIa), there is an additional sub-genotype (XIIIb) that emerged in India and Iran that also appears to have as an ancestor a NDV strain from an Indian cockatoo isolated in 1982. These data support our previous findings of co-evolution of multiple virulent NDV in unknown reservoirs, e.g. as recorded with the virulent NDV identified in Dominican Republic in 2008 that had been evolving for twenty years before being characterized. The co-evolution of at least three different sub-genotypes reported here and the apparent origin of some of those genotypes from NDV strains isolated from psittacines support the importance of identifying and understanding the role of wild life reservoirs to predict and prevent new panzootics.