|PIENIAZEK, J - Texas Agrilife Research|
|Stipanovic, Robert - Bob|
|WEDEGAERTNER, T - Cotton, Inc|
|FARNELL, M - Mississippi State University|
|Byrd Ii, James - Allen|
|LEE, J - Texas Agrilife Research|
Submitted to: European Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/25/2015
Publication Date: 3/27/2015
Citation: Pieniazek, J., Stipanovic, R.D., Puckhaber, L.S., Wedegaertner, T.C., Farnell, M.B., Byrd II, J.A., Lee, J.T. 2015. Pressed, dehulled cottonseed meal: Effect on growth performance in broiler diets and retention of gossypol in tissues. European Poultry Science. 10.1399/eps.2015.81.
Interpretive Summary: Recently, an increase in the cost for poultry diet ingredients in the United States has led many feed manufacturers to seek less costly alternatives to soybean meal for protein and energy in their poultry diets. In the United States, one of the most cost effective sources to meet this need is cottonseed meal (CSM). CSM has been used as a grain substitute in livestock diets. However, it is generally not fed to non-ruminant animals because of the presence of gossypol, a naturally occurring toxicant in the endosperm of cottonseed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on broiler performance and to determine gossypol accumulation in chicken tissues when pressed, dehulled CSM was incorporated in broiler diets at a rate of 5 and 10% either for a limited time (day 1 to 21) or for the entire 41 day grow-out period. The study showed that supplementation of pressed, dehulled CSM at 5 and 10% in broiler diets does not have a negative effect on either broiler weight gain or FCR. In addition, gossypol was not detected in the breast or thigh tissues of any broilers fed the CSM diets at 35 and 41 days; at 35 and 41 days, gossypol was either not detected or detected at a very low concentration in liver samples of birds fed either the 5 or 10% CSM starter diets. However, liver tissue samples show a high level of gossypol in all dietary phases when CSM was fed continuously throughout the study; conversely, when CSM was removed from feed after the starter diet, gossypol levels in the liver were significantly reduced at day 41. Thus, additional research is needed to ascertain the maximum level of CSM that may safely be included in broiler diets, and to determine the presence of gossypol in chicken tissues.
Technical Abstract: This experiment evaluated the effect of cottonseed meal on broiler growth performance and determined residual gossypol in chicken tissues. Pressed, dehulled cottonseed meal (CSM) was included at 5 and 10% either for the first 21 d or for the entire 41 d trial; body weights and FCR for birds fed the CSM were compared to those of birds fed an industry type maize-soybean meal diet. A starter diet was fed through 21 d, a grower diet for 22 to 35 d, and a finisher diet for 36 to 41 d. Body weight and FCR were determined on d 10, 21, 35, and 41. Muscle and liver samples were collected to determine the presence of gossypol on d 21, 35 and 41. At the conclusion of the trial, no differences were observed (p>0.05) in body weight or FCR for birds fed any of the CSM diets compared to the control diet. Gossypol was not found in breast and thigh tissues from birds fed any of the CSM diets at 35 and 41 d. However, after 35 and 41 d gossypol was found in some of the liver samples. These data indicate that pressed, dehulled cottonseed meal can be included at up to 10% in broiler diets without negatively affecting growth performance. Further research should be conducted to ascertain the maximum level of CSM that may safely be included in broiler diets, and determine the presence of gossypol in chicken tissues.