|CRISAFULLI, CHARLES - Us Forest Service (FS)|
|SWANSON, FREDERICK - Us Forest Service (FS)|
|CLARKSON, BRUCE - University Of Waikato|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/6/2014
Publication Date: 3/25/2015
Citation: Crisafulli, C.M., Swanson, F.J., Halvorson, J.J., Clarkson, B. 2015. Volcano ecology: Disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities. In: Sigurdsson, H., editor. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. 2nd edition. Amsterdam: Academic Press. p. 1265-1284.
Technical Abstract: Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biological processes to eruption events. This chapter focuses on the response of terrestrial ecosystems to volcanic disturbance including areas undergoing primary succession, where the substrates have never been previously inhabited, and also areas undergoing secondary succession, where at least some survivors of the pre-eruption biological communities are present. The chapter introduces the reader to conceptual models of disturbance and ecosystem assembly and features discussions of specific types of volcanic processes and their impacts on biota; physical and chemical characteristics of newly emplaced volcanic products (e.g., lava, tephra), and their relationship to soil development and to the assembly of plant and animal communities; initial and mid-term (i.e., successional) responses of plant and animal species and assemblages to volcanism; and provides examples of a few salient ecosystem processes and biotic interactions that have been observed following volcanic disturbance. The chapter concludes by emphasizing the importance of the context under which volcanism is taking place, which so profoundly influences the pace and pattern of ecological responses and includes key factors such as geographic setting; climate; volcanic disturbance type, intensity and spatial extent; and stochastic properties influencing assembly processes.