Submitted to: Biopesticides International
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/30/2014
Publication Date: 6/1/2014
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Souder, S., Borges, R., Mafra-Neto, A., Mackey, B., Chou, M., Spafford, H. 2014. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits. Biopesticides International. 10(1):1-10. Interpretive Summary: Concerns over use of organophosphate insecticides in fruit fly detection and management systems has raised serious environmental/human health concerns. Safer alternatives to organophosphate insecticides for fruit fly monitoring and control have been developed by the Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management(AWPM) program, funded by the U.S.Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service(USDA-ARS). The AWPM program successfully integrated environmentally friendly Integrated Pest Management(IPM) technologies into a comprehensive fruit fly management package. Some of the novel IPM technologies include the use of SPLAT(Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology) Male Annihilation Treatment(MAT) containing fruit fly lures Methyl Eugenol(ME) or Cue-Lure(C-L) that also contained the reduced risk insecticide spinosad. Previous research in Hawaii has shown that SPLAT-ME or C-L with spinosad was an effective fruit fly control method and could replace liquid lures and organophosphate insecticides. This study compared the performance of SPLAT ME at the orchard or area-wide level. Results indicate that SPLAT-ME are equal to standard treatments and are promising substitutes. Worldwide application against ME responding flies with other environmentally friendly alternatives like protein bait sprays and sanitation could be implemented in AWPM programs for eradication of accidental fruit fly introductions.
Technical Abstract: SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a single treatment(100 application sites/ha) of SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME was compared to multiple applications of the standard treatment (malathion ME male annihilation blocks and protein bait sprays). In Hawaii,treatments were conducted at two different application rates(10 or 50 stations/ha) and compared to a control (no treatment). Rapid reductions in male fruit flies occurred in demonstration trials, in both Brazil and Hawaii. In Hawaii, the higher treatment rate resulted in higher suppression of the population. These two studies against two different species of Bactrocera suggest SPLAT-based spinosad "attract and kill" formulations containing spinosad are equally as effective as standard treatments and are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations using male annihilation which utilize more toxic and less desirable organophosphate insecticides.