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Title: Camelina sativa defatted seed meal contains both alkyl sulfinyl glucosinolates and quercetin that synergize bioactivity

item DAS, NILANJAN - University Of Illinois
item Berhow, Mark
item ANGELINO, DONATO - University Of Illinois
item JEFFERY, ELIZABETH - University Of Illinois

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/22/2014
Publication Date: 11/17/2014
Publication URL:
Citation: Das, N., Berhow, M.A., Angelino, D., Jeffery, E.H. 2014. Camelina sativa defatted seed meal contains both alkyl sulfinyl glucosinolates and quercetin that synergize bioactivity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62:8385-8391.

Interpretive Summary: Camelina is under development as a new oilseed crop in North America, but little use is being made of the seed meal remaining after oil removal. While the nutriceutical (bio-active) compounds found in defatted camelina seed meal have been identified and measured, there have been few studies on biological effect of the nutriceuticals when consumed as part of a diet. The defatted meal contains two sets of potentially bioactive phytochemicals, one class of glucosinolates and one class of flavonoids. We tested two purified camelina glucosinolates and two purified camelina flavonoids for their ability to upregulate detoxification enzymes, as biomarkers of anti-cancer activity, using human cancer cell lines. These compounds alone and in combination, as well as the full seed extract all caused induction of a key phase II enzyme activity. Moreover, we found synergy in inducing this activity when we treated the cells with a combination of glucosinolate and flavonoid. We also found synergy of this enzyme activity induction by two similar key bioactives present in broccoli, a possible indicator that the glucosinolate within broccoli is more potent than the purified glucosinolate metabolite. As defatted camelina seed extract possesses phase II enzyme inducing activity, it should be evaluated for anticancer activity, similar to other Brassicaceae family members, such as broccoli.

Technical Abstract: Camelina sativa L. Crantz is under development as a novel oil-seed crop, yet bioefficacy of camelina phytochemicals is unknown. Defatted camelina seed meal contains two major aliphatic glucosinolates (GSL), glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonylglucosinolate; GSL 9) and glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decylglucosinolate; GSL 10), with traces of a third, 11(methylsulfinyl)undecylglucosinolate and several flavonoids, mostly quercetin glycosides. In Hepa1c1c7 cells, hydrolyzed GSL (hGSL) 9 and 10 upregulated the phase II detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (NQO1), with no effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 activity. Isobologram graphs revealed synergy of NQO1 induction for a combination of hGSL9 and quercetin. These findings suggest that defatted camelina seed meal should be evaluated for anticancer activity, similar to broccoli and other Brassicaceae family members. Interestingly, synergy of NQO1 induction was also seen for physiologically relevant doses of sulforaphane (SF) and quercetin, two key bioactives present in broccoli. This suggests that SF within broccoli may be more potent than purified SF.