|WARKENTIN, T. - University Of Saskatchewan|
|SMYKAL, P. - Palacky University|
|Coyne, Clarice - Clare|
|WEEDEN, N. - Montana State University|
|DOMONEY, C. - John Innes Center|
|BING, D. - Lacombe Research Centre|
|LEONFORTE, T. - Department Of Environment And Primary Industries|
|ZONG, X. - Chinese Academy Of Agricultural Sciences|
|DIXIT, G. - Indian Institute Of Pulses Research (IIPR)|
|BOROS, L. - Plant Breeding And Acclimatization Institute (IHAR)|
|MCPHEE, K. - North Dakota State University|
|BURSTIN, J. - Inland Northwest Research Alliance, Inra|
|ELLIS, N. - International Crops Research Institute For Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) - India|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/19/2014
Publication Date: 9/1/2015
Citation: Warkentin, T., Smykal, P., Coyne, C.J., Weeden, N., Domoney, C., Bing, D., Leonforte, T., Zong, X., Dixit, G., Boros, L., McPhee, K., McGee, R.J., Burstin, J., Ellis, N. 2014. Pea (Pisum sativum L.). In: A. De Ron (editor) Handbook of Plant Breeding: Grain Legumes. Springer Science and Business Media, New York.
Interpretive Summary: Grain yield gains must continue for pea to remain an attractive option in crop rotations. This will require a concerted effort from pea breeders internationally. In western Europe pea production has declined in the past two decades as producers have focused on high yielding winter wheat and winter canola. This has led to a decline in pea breeding activity. Pea production has increased in North America and Australia over the past two decades and similarly, pea breeding efforts have also increased. In order to achieve yield gains in pea, many biotic and abiotic stresses must be addressed through breeding. These stresses are specific to each region, however, in general, fungal diseases are the key biotic stress in most pea growing regions, followed by various insects and viruses. Heat stress at flowering is the key abiotic stress in many pea growing regions, followed by early season flooding. Addressing these stresses are key breeding objectives for pea breeders in their attempts to increase and stabilize grain yields. Greater international exchange of germplasm, and increased use of diverse Pisum germplasm may aid in achieving new yield gains. Use of genomic tools should enhance breeders’ ability to substantially enrich their breeding populations with desired alleles, prior to the expensive exercise of yield testing in field trials.
Technical Abstract: Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mid-Miocene with the center of diversity and postulated area of origin of the Fabeae is in the Eastern Mediterranean. Based on morphology, Pisum sp. is one of the most diverse crop species known, comparable to Zea maize, Cucurbita pepo, and Brassica oleracea. Total pea genetic resources are extensive with ex situ germplasm holdings of 73,931 accessions in +28 national and international collections with duplicate samples of 9,670 accessions preserved at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Arctic Norway. Major breeding achievements are presented. In Canada, steady progress has been made in improving the agronomic and quality characteristics, especially bleaching resistance, of field pea as evidenced in the cultivars released. Disease resistances has focused on the ascochyta blight complex, powdery mildew and increasingly soil-borne pathogens. Lodging resistance has improved with the use of the semi-leafless and stiff stalk traits. In USA, progress is similar for dry pea with disease focus success on virus resistance and root rot resistance. Australia has also moved from long-vine to dwarf type dry pea resulting in higher more stable yields. Stress tolerances needed include to boron, salinity and iron deficiency along with disease resistances to ascochyta flight complex, mildews, viruses and bacterial blight. In Europe the move to the semi-leafless trait has improved yields, lodging resistance, and disease resistance to ascochyta blight. Other pathogens of viruses, soil-borne pathogens, and downy mildew have had improvement through breeding. India also has the focus of semi-leafless variety development and release of a rust resistant line. China continues to breed normal and semi-leafless lines, along with a tentrilless vegetable variety.