Submitted to: American Veterinary Medical Association Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/30/2014
Publication Date: 7/26/2014
Citation: Miller, P.J., Bubu, T., Haddas, R., Khan, T.A., Mukhar, N., Rehmani, S.F., Setiyaningsih, S., Wajid, A., Yaqub, T., Zahid, M.N., Afonso, C.L. 2014. Emergence of new sub-genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus with panzootic features [abstract]. American Veterinary Medical Association. Abstract/Paper ID No. 16731. p. 59. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics from three new sub-genotypes of genotypes VII and XIII are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) that are producing significant illness and mortality in vaccinated poultry, suggesting the existence of a fifth, and perhaps sixth, panzootic. New NDV strains of sub-genotypes VIIh and VIIi do not appear to have originated directly from the current genotype VII NDV strains that are widely circulating, but are more related to the Indonesian NDV strains isolated from wild birds since the 80s. Viruses from sub-genotype VIIh were isolated in Indonesia (2009-2010), Malaysia (2011), China (2011), and Cambodia (2011-2012), and are closely related to an Indonesian NDV strain isolated in 2007. Since 2011 viruses from sub-genotype VIIi have been isolated from poultry and pet birds throughout Indonesia, Pakistan and Israel. In addition to the Pakistani NDV strains first utilized to create genotype XIII (now called sub-genotype XIIIa), another sub-genotype, XIIIb, has emerged in India and Iran. The co-evolution of at least three different sub-genotypes reported here and the apparent origin of some of those genotypes from NDV strains isolated from psittacines supports the importance of identifying and understanding the role of wild life reservoirs to predict and prevent new panzootics.