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Title: Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

Author
item WU, GEYANG - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY
item Morris, Craig
item MURPHY, KEVIN - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/27/2014
Publication Date: 11/12/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/59788
Citation: Wu, G., Morris, C.F., Murphy, K. 2014. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa. Journal of Food Science. 79:S2337-S2345.

Interpretive Summary: Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd, is a dicotyledonous seed and a pseudocereal. It has been growing in the Andean region of South America at 4000m above sea level for 5000 years. It is one of the few crops adapted to the high altitude and soil salinity, which makes it the major staple in South America.Quinoa is known as a “complete food,” due to the high nutritional value, and is also a gluten-free cereal. A significant proportion of Western population are gluten intolerant or gluten sensitive, thus gluten free foods are quickly emerging in the market and the demand keeps increasing. Quinoa can be utilized in gluten free products and diets. This paper studied the variation in the textural properties of cooked quinoa among different varieties, as well as the affecting factors, including seed characteristics and composition, cooking process, flour pasting properties and thermal properties. Texture profiles of cooked quinoa were significantly different among the thirteen varieties studied. It should be noted that besides variety, environment, irrigation/fertilization conditions, and processed degree would greatly affect the composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities and texture. The environmental and genetic influence on the texture of cooked quinoa should be further studied.

Technical Abstract: Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour thermal properties were determined. The results showed that texture of cooked quinoa and physical properties were significantly different among varieties. Protein content significantly affected all the texture parameters positively except springiness. Seed hardness positively correlated with hardness, gumminess and chewiness at P = 0.10. Seed density and coat proportion affected the hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness in a negative and positive way, respectively. Cooking time of quinoa significantly correlated with the hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness at P = 0.005, with the adhesiveness at P = 0.05, all of which were positive relations; while water uptake ratio negatively affected the hardness, gumminess and chewiness at P = 0.05. Flour pasting viscosity parameters of peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback related with texture to different degrees. Final viscosity and setback affected all the texture profile parameters negatively except springiness and adhesiveness. Onset gelatinization temperature (To) was significantly correlated with all the texture profile parameters in a positive way except springiness, peak temperature (Tp) slightly affected with the cohesiveness, while neither conclusion temperature (Tc) nor enthalpy correlated with the texture of cooked quinoa.