Submitted to: Mycotaxon
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/3/2015
Publication Date: 12/31/2015
Citation: Savchenko, K., Carris, L., Castlebury, L.A., Heluta, V., Wasser, S., Nevo, E. 2015. Entyloma scandicis, a new smut fungus on Scandix verna from Mediterranean forests of Israel. Mycotaxon. 130(4):1061-1071. Interpretive Summary: Fungi cause serious diseases of agricultural and forest crops. One group of fungi known as smut fungi cause diseases in plants by killing leaf, stem or seed tissue and subsequently producing dark powdery spores. Because many species of these fungi resemble each other superficially, species infecting wild plants and weeds can easily be confused with species infecting agricultural crops. Distinguishing these fungi is essential for identifying and controlling diseases. In this paper the smut fungi from a wild plant related to celery and carrots were studied using microscopic structures and molecular sequences. It was determined that some isolates represented a new species, which was described and illustrated. This research will be used by pathologists and plant disease diagnosticians to accurately identify these fungi.
Technical Abstract: Entyloma is a genus of more than 170 species of smut fungi parasitizing dicotyledons. Within the genus, the species sporulating in vegetative organs of Apiaceae form a separate group. In this study, the morphology and phylogeny of Entyloma on Scandix verna (Apiaceae, Scandiceae) collected in Mount Carmel, and Lower Galilee regions of Israel, were studied using light microscopy and ITS rDNA sequence analyses. The fungus differs morphologically from E. bupleuri, E. helosciadii s.l., E. kundmanniae, E. magocsyanum, and E. pastinaceae, which also occur on umbellifers from the subfamily Apioideae. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the origin of Entyloma species on Apioideae from the pathogens of Eryngium (Saniculoideae), and revealed that all specimens of Entyloma from Scandix represent a monophyletic lineage, sister to E. magocsyanum. As a result, the smut in leaves and petioles of Scandix verna is described and illustrated here as a new species, Entyloma scandicis.