|SHIN, DOO-JEE - Korea University|
|CHOI, INDUCK - National Institute Of Crop Science - Korea|
|Yokoyama, Wallace - Wally|
|KIM, MI-JA - Sung Kyun Kwan University|
|KIM, YOOKYUNG - Korea University|
Submitted to: International Journal of Food Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/25/2013
Publication Date: 2/19/2014
Publication URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12363
Citation: Shin, D., Choi, I., Yokoyama, W.H., Kim, M., Kim, Y. 2014. Decreased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes treated with extracts of heat processed soy flour and breads. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 49:759-767. DOI: 10.1111/IJFS.12363.
Interpretive Summary: Obesity is a significant public health concern. We evaluated the substitution of soy flour, an ingredient low in fat and high in fiber and protein, which might assist in weight management. Breads made entirely of soybean flour were evaluated for their ability to prevent fat accumulation in cultured human adipose tissues. Roasting or germination did not have an affect on fat accumulation but steaming decreased fat accumulation.
Technical Abstract: The antiadipogenic effects of a gluten-free soy bread developed from soy flour pretreated by germination (GS), steaming (SS), or roasting (RS) were evaluated in an in vitro adipocyte cell model. Previously we had shown that soy bread prepared by GS, SS or RS flours had acceptable sensory attributes and higher levels of isoflavones. In this study germination and roasting increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) content of the GS and RS flours compared to the raw non-treated (NS) flour. RS flour had the highest TP (1.04 GAE mg g-1) and GS flour the highest TF (0.92 CAE mg g-1). There were no significant differences of TP and TF values of the bread crust or crumb with the exception of the crust of the GS bread which had the highest TF (0.87 CAE mg g-1). The baking process increased 0.09 to 0.26 GAE mg g-1 of the TP content of breads, compared to their respective flours. By contrast, the TF content in the bread crust decreased 0.02 to 0.23 CAE mg g-1. The fermentation process in breadmaking appeared to increase the DPPH radical scavenging activities either in crumb and crust when compared to their respective flours except NS and GS crumb. SS (88.8%) and RS (84.8%) bread crumbs had higher DPPH value than GS (76.7%) and NS (70.2%) bread crumbs. The ABTS radical cation scavenging activity of the samples exhibited similar patterns to those of DPPH radical scavenging activity. Lipid accumulation, a characteristic of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells using Oil Red O staining was used to show that the alcoholic extracts (100 µg mL-1) of SS flour and bread decreased adipocyte differentiation by 1.6 and 2.1 fold, respectively (P < 0.05) compared to control. SS bread extract substantially down-regulated the adipogenesis-related genes acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH).