|VELAZQUEZ-SALINAS, LAURO - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
|ZARATE, SELENE - Autonomous National University Of Mexico|
|BASURTO-ALCANTARA, FRANCISCO - Autonomous National University Of Mexico|
|VERDUGO-RODRIGUEZ, ANTONIO - Autonomous National University Of Mexico|
|PEREZ, ANDRES - University Of California|
Submitted to: Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/17/2013
Publication Date: 1/20/2014
Citation: Velazquez-Salinas, L., Pauszek, S.J., Zarate, S., Basurto-Alcantara, F.J., Verdugo-Rodriguez, A., Perez, A.M., Rodriguez, L.L. 2014. Phylogeographic characteristics of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey viruses circulating in Mexico from 2005-2011 and their relationship to epidemics in the United States. Virology. 449(1):17-24.
Interpretive Summary: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is the most common vesicular disease affecting livestock throughout the Americas . Clinical signs of VS in cattle and pigs resemble those of foot and mouth disease (FMD), one of the most devastating viral infections of livestock. Horses can also be infected by VS viruses (VSV) and outbreaks typically result in quarantines and stop-movement measures that cause disruption to horse shows and trade. In the US, VS epidemics occur in sporadic cycles of 8-10 year intervals, starting usually in the border states with Mexico (Arizona, New Mexico or Texas) and spreading as far north as Colorado and Wyoming. Previous work suggests that viruses causing outbreaks in the US originate in endemic areas of Southern Mexico. Here we document, for the first time, the emergence of a VS New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strain in southern Mexico in 2005 and track its northward migration causing outbreaks in Central and Northern Mexico and eventually into the U.S. Additionally, we identified a new group of viruses from Mexico that, unlike previous isolates from Mexico, grouped with northern Central America viruses. This study provides the first direct evidence for the emergence and northward migration of a specific VSNJV genetic lineage from endemic areas in Mexico causing VS outbreaks in the U.S. In addition it documents the emergence of a Central American VSNJV genetic lineage moving northward in Mexico that could eventually reach the U.S. This information is valuable for surveillance programs of vesicular disease in the U.S. and might help to better prepare for future incursions of VS into the United States.
Technical Abstract: We analyzed the phylogenetic and time-space relationships (phylodynamics) of 181 isolates of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) causing disease in Mexico and the United States (US) from 2005 through 2012. We detail the emergence of a genetic lineage in southern Mexico causing outbreaks in central Mexico spreading into northern Mexico and eventually into the US. That emerging lineage showed higher nucleotide sequence identity (99.5%) than that observed for multiple lineages circulating concurrently in southern Mexico (96.8%). Additionally, we identified 58 isolates from Mexico that, unlike previous isolates from Mexico, grouped with northern Central America clade II viruses. This study provides the first direct evidence for the emergence and northward migration of a specific VSNJV genetic lineage from endemic areas in Mexico causing VS outbreaks in the US. In addition we document the emergence of a Central American VSNJV genetic lineage moving northward and causing outbreaks in central Mexico.