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ARS Home » Plains Area » Brookings, South Dakota » Integrated Cropping Systems Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #299541

Research Project: SOIL AND CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVED NATURAL RESOURCE QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY

Location: Integrated Cropping Systems Research

Title: Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

Author
item Riedell, Walter
item Osborne, Shannon

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/27/2013
Publication Date: 6/22/2014
Citation: Riedell, W.E., Osborne, S.L. 2014. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield. p. 1. In: Sixth World Congress on Conservation Agriculture (Abstracts, Session 2). 22-26 June 2014. Winnipeg CA. Conservation Technology Information Center. West Lafayette IN.

Interpretive Summary: Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil management, crop management, and crop yield. Extensive use of sustainable crop and soil management systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of extended crop rotations on soil physical and chemical properties and their effect on the growth, yield, and seed composition of soybeans under no-till soil management. Our observations indicate that changes in soil physical and chemical properties under extended rotations that include annual and perennial forages may play an important role in improving biomass mineral nutrition levels, increasing grain yield, and enhancing seed components of soybeans grown in those rotations.

Technical Abstract: Extensive use of sustainable crop and soil management systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil management, crop management, and crop yield. This study was designed to investigate the impact of extended crop rotations on soil physical and chemical properties and their effect on the growth, yield, and seed composition of one of the crops common across rotational treatments (soybeans) under no-till soil management. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stover dry weight and mineral concentrations, seed yield, and seed composition (protein, oil, and minerals) responded to soybean-maize (Zea mays L.) 2-yr rotation (S-C); soybean-spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize 3-yr rotation (S-W-C); soybean-oat/pea (Hordeum vulgare L./Pisum sativum L.) hay-maize 3-yr rotation (S-H-C); and soybean-oat/pea hay underseeded with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-alfalfa-alflafa-maize 5-yr rotation (S-H/A-A-A-C). Rotation treatments under no-till soil management were established in 1997 and soybean measurements were made during the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. Soils under the 5-yr rotation had 129 kg ha-1 preseason residual NO3-N concentration while the other rotations averaged about 65. The 5-yr rotation also had lower bulk density (1.35 g cm-3) than S-H-C (1.46) with S-W-C (1.38) and S-C (1.38) intermediate. Soybean seed yield was about 10% greater in the 5-yr rotation than in the other treatments. Kernel protein was 3% greater and kernel Zn was 11% greater under the 5-yr rotation than under the S-C rotation while the others were intermediate. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties under extended rotations that include perennial forages may play an important role in increasing soybean seed yield and enhancing seed protein but may, because of high preseason soil NO3-N levels, also be susceptible to potential NO3-N leaching beyond the root zone. Our observations also indicate that changes in soil physical and chemical properties under extended rotations that include perennial forages may play an important role in improving biomass mineral nutrition levels, increasing grain yield, and enhancing seed components of soybeans grown in those rotations.