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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Laboratory for Agriculture and The Environment » Soil, Water & Air Resources Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #298816

Title: Establishment and early development of 'Kanza', 'Peruque', and other pecan cultivars in northern U.S. growing regions

item THOMAS, ANDREWL - University Of Missouri
item REID, WILLIAM - Kansas State University
item Sauer, Thomas - Tom

Submitted to: Acta Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/15/2014
Publication Date: 2/15/2015
Citation: Thomas, A.L., Reid, W.R., Sauer, T.J. 2015. Establishment and early development of 'Kanza', 'Peruque', and other pecan cultivars in northern U.S. growing regions. Acta Horticulturae. 1070:143-147.

Interpretive Summary: Pecan production is concentrated in warmer, southern states. Pecan trees can grow as far north as Minnesota; however, not enough is known about the different pecan cultivars and their ability to grow and produce nuts in northern regions. This study evaluated several pecan cultivars in two orchards in southern Missouri and northwestern Arkansas. Severe weather (frosts) damaged trees at both locations. The improved cultivars, which were planted as grafted trees, are more susceptible to frost damage and produce nuts later than managed wild trees. However, most of the grafted trees did survive and have the potential to produce more nuts than managed wild trees. This research is of interest to growers and scientists interested in establishing pecan production in areas north of traditional pecan-growing regions.

Technical Abstract: Most pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut production in the northern range of the species (Missouri, Kansas, Northern Arkansas) is from managed wild trees. Orchards of trees grafted to improved cultivars are slowly being established in the region as economic opportunities improve. Pecan cultivars that are potentially adapted to northern climates have not been thoroughly evaluated in the region. Two young grafted orchards in southwest Missouri and northwest Arkansas were evaluated for early growth and development. The Missouri site experienced severe freeze damage in October 2000, which significantly delayed nut production. ‘Posey’ and ‘Kanza’ have produced the largest trees at the Missouri site, whereas no differences in growth were observed between ‘Kanza’ and ‘Peruque’ in Arkansas. ‘Kanza’ initiated nut production earliest at both sites, and produced the highest yields in Missouri in 2012. While grafted pecan trees in this region may be slow to initiate nut production, and may be susceptible to temperature anomalies, the trees in this study have performed well and are now entering full nut production.