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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Corvallis, Oregon » National Clonal Germplasm Repository » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #298616

Research Project: Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository

Title: Managing nut genetic resources under disease threat

Author
item Hummer, Kim
item Postman, Joseph
item Preece, John

Submitted to: Acta Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/25/2014
Publication Date: 1/1/2015
Citation: Hummer, K.E., Postman, J.D., Preece, J.E. 2015. Managing nut genetic resources under disease threat. Acta Horticulturae. 1070:193-200.

Interpretive Summary: The USDA ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) Corvallis, Oregon, is assigned to preserve genetic resources of hazelnuts and butternuts . Both crops are threatened by fungal diseases. Hazelnuts are challenged by Eastern filbert blight (EFB) . Butternuts are challenged by butternut canker and Thousand cankers disease . EFB is native in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, and spread to the Pacific Northwestern US, initially arriving in southern Washington State in the 1960's. The disease spread throughout Oregon’s hazelnut production area, and by 2005, the disease was established within about a mile from the NCGR genebank. Fungicide applications are made annually during the spring infection period to prevent the movement of EFB into the genebank orchard. Thus far the disease has not been observed in the collection. With the abundance of water splashed spores throughout the Willamette Valley, the genebank staff is concerned about the eventuality of EFB infection. A backup planting of hazelnut core accessions is established in Parlier, California, far away from commercial production and EFB. Partof the hazelnut collection is preserved as tissue cultures stored under refrigeration and storage in liquid nitrogen is under research. The NCGR-Corvallis has shipped > 2000 hazelnut samples during the past 18 years. Because the range of EFB is limited to North America, its presence in Oregon does not impact distribution within the United States. Foreign quarantine regulations require exclusion of EFB. NCGR has used molecular markers to identify EFB resistant genotypes, identify hazelnut cultivars, and assess the genetic diversity of the genebank collection. The NCGR genebank continues to preserve world diversity of hazelnut genotypes and species. The butternut collection at the NCGR-Corvallis is outside of the range for Butternut canker, which is found east of the Rocky Mountains. Thousand cankers disease is in Oregon but it has not been observed in the NCGR butternut collection. Secondary butternut collections are at the US Forest Service in West Lafayette, Indiana, or St. Paul, Minnesota.

Technical Abstract: The USDA ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) Corvallis, Oregon, is assigned to preserve genetic resources of hazelnuts (Corylus L.) and butternuts (Juglans cinerea L.). Both crops are threatened by fungal diseases. Hazelnuts are challenged by Eastern filbert blight (EFB) [caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller]. Butternuts are challenged by butternut canker [Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum Nair, Kostichka & Kuntz] and Thousand cankers disease [Geosmithia morbida]. EFB is native in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, and spread to the Pacific Northwestern US, initially arriving in southern Washington State in the 1960's. The disease spread throughout Oregon’s hazelnut production area, and by 2005, the disease was established within about 2.5 km of the NCGR genebank. Prophylactic fungicide applications, recommended by OSU are made annually during the spring infection period to prevent the movement of EFB into the genebank orchard. Thus far the disease has not been observed in the collection. With the abundance of water splashed spores throughout the Willamette Valley, the genebank staff is concerned about the eventuality of EFB infection. A backup planting of hazelnut core accessions is established in Parlier, California, far away from commercial production and EFB. About 10% of the hazelnut collection is preserved as in vitro cultures stored at 4oC and dormant bud cryogenic storage is under research. The NCGR-Corvallis has shipped > 2000 hazelnut samples during the past 18 years. Because the range of EFB is limited to North America, its presence in Oregon does not impact distribution within the United States. Foreign quarantine regulations require exclusion of EFB. NCGR and OSU have used molecular markers to identify EFB resistant genotypes, identify hazelnut cultivars, and assess the genetic diversity of the genebank collection. The NCGR genebank continues to preserve world diversity of hazelnut genotypes and species. The butternut collection at the NCGR-Corvallis is outside of the range for Butternut canker, which is found east of the Rocky Mountains. Thousand cankers disease is in Oregon but it has not been observed in the NCGR butternut collection. Secondary butternut collections are at the US Forest Service in West Lafayette, Indiana, or St. Paul, Minnesota.