Skip to main content
ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Wapato, Washington » Temperate Tree Fruit and Vegetable Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #298261

Title: Molecular advances in larval fruit moth identification to facilitate fruit export from western United States under systems approaches

item Yokomi, Raymond - Ray
item DELGADO, J - Heritage University
item Unruh, Thomas
item BARCENAS, N - Heritage University
item Garczynski, Stephen
item WALSE, SPENCER - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item PEREZ DE LEON, ADALBERTO - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item Cooper, William - Rodney

Submitted to: Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/2/2021
Publication Date: 9/24/2021
Citation: Yokomi, R.K., Delgado, J.K., Unruh, T.R., Barcenas, N.M., Garczynski, S.F., Walse, S., Perez de Leon, A.A., Cooper, W.R. 2021. Molecular advances in larval fruit moth identification to facilitate fruit export from western United States under systems approaches. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 115(1):105-112.

Interpretive Summary: This article reviews the Systems Approach that integrates different pest risk management measures to achieve the appropriate level of phytosanitary protection for the export of apples, pears, cherries and other stone fruits to trade partners outside of the USA. We highlight our research on recent advances of molecular identification of fruit moths as an example of a successful systems approach. When small moth larvae are found feeding in the fruit and morphological characters cannot distinguish the pest species, a new molecular-based identification protocol was developed for species identification of key pome fruit internal feeders. The method provides multiplexing of the diagnostic procedures to allows more rapid identification than previous methods. The new method provides support of ongoing pre-harvest "systems approach" export programs for cherries from the Pacific Northwest to Japan without fumigation wen no codling moth are interdicted in fruit inspections at packing houses

Technical Abstract: Several insect species in the Western USA are regulated pests that can trigger the quarantine of pome and stone fruit shipments destined for export markets. Systems approaches are gaining international acceptance, with several instances relevant to the export of fruit from Western USA. Many events in the export marketing channel, ranging from pre-plant efforts (e.g., GMO) to biological considerations (e.g., host status) to refrigerated storage, can reduce the potential occurrence of an insect pest, and a systems approach combines multiple tactics to achieve the required level of food security. Research advances in the molecular identification of larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an internal feeder of pome and stone fruit, were required to validate the systems approach for export of fresh cherries to Japan. Suspect codling moth larvae interdicted in cherries at packing houses were distinguished from other internal fruit moth larvae including the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, G. prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, G. packardi Zeller; and filbertworm , Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Identification achieved by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of a 301 bp region of the codling moth cytochrome oxidase I gene region was applied for multispecies comparison to ascertain molecular diagnosis. These findings are discussed in the context of systems approach research needs to meet evolving phytosanitary requirements for the global export of fruits