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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Byron, Georgia » Fruit and Tree Nut Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #298118

Research Project: Breeding Stone Fruit Adapted to the Production Environment of the Southeastern United States

Location: Fruit and Tree Nut Research

Title: NC-140 peach rootstock testing in 13 U.S. states

item Reighard, G - Clemson University
item Bridges, W - Clemson University
item Archbold, D - University Of Kentucky
item Atucha, A - Colorado State University
item Autio, W - University Of Massachusetts
item Beckman, Thomas - Tom
item Black, B - Utah State University
item Coneva, E - Auburn University
item Day, K - University Of California
item Kushad, M - University Of Illinois
item Pokharel, R - Colorado State University
item Johnson, R - University Of California
item Lindstrom, T - University Of Utah
item Parker, M - North Carolina State University
item Robinson, T - Cornell University - New York
item Schupp, J - Pennsylvania State University
item Warmund, M - University Of Missouri
item Wolfe, D - University Of Kentucky

Submitted to: Acta Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/6/2014
Publication Date: 5/20/2015
Citation: Reighard, G., Bridges, W., Archbold, D., Atucha, A., Autio, W., Beckman, T.G., Black, B., Coneva, E., Day, K., Kushad, M., Pokharel, R., Johnson, R.S., Lindstrom, T., Parker, M., Robinson, T., Schupp, J., Warmund, M., Wolfe, D. 2015. NC-140 peach rootstock testing in 13 U.S. states. Acta Horticulturae. 1084:225-232.

Interpretive Summary: Regional rootstock tests provide critically important performance data for growers and extension personnel in planning a commercial orchard. The NC-140 peach rootstock trials have been providing this type of information since 1984. In the most recent installment ‘Redhaven’ peach on 18 different rootstocks were planted at 14 sites in North America in 2009. Rootstocks included plum and plum hybrids, peach, peach-almond hybrids. Lovell was included as a standard for comparison. After 2 crops useful differences in vigor, harvest date, fruit yield and size are already apparent. Results are preliminary and trial is planned to run several more years.

Technical Abstract: Eighteen Prunus rootstocks budded with ‘Redhaven’ peach were planted at 16 locations in North America in 2009. Fourth-year performance from 14 locations show that significant differences among rootstocks and sites were found for survival, root suckers, growth, bloom date, fruit maturity date, fruit size, cumulative yield, and yield efficiency. Survival was excellent (>96%) in the states MA, CA, SC and UT and poor (<77%) in MO and NC (bacterial canker). Imperial California had the lowest overall survival (48%) followed by Fortuna and Krymsk®1. Rootstock suckering was excessive on Prunus americana seedlings with Replantpac a distant second. The largest trees were in CA, NY, MO and SC, while the smallest trees were in CO and UT, both higher elevation mountain states with calcareous soils. Tree TCSAs were largest on Bright’s Hybrid #5, Guardian®, Viking, Krymsk®86 and Atlas; whereas, TCSAs of trees on Krymsk®1, Controller 5, P. americana and Fortuna were the smallest. Trees on P. americana and Fortuna bloomed 1-3 days later than the average in 2011 and 2012. The earliest bloom by 1-2 days in both years occurred on Bright’s Hybrid #5 and KV010127 rootstocks. Fruit maturity dates varied by 59 and 52 days across sites in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Among rootstocks and years, fruit maturity was advanced up to 2.5 days and delayed as much as 3.5 days. Bright’s Hybrid #5 and KV010127 advanced maturity, and Penta and HBOK 32 delayed maturity in both years. Fruit size was largest (192 to 231g) in SC, UT and CA and smallest (117 to 154g) in GA and NC for both years. Viking, Bright’s Hybrid #5 and KV010127 produced the largest fruit and Fortuna the smallest. Cumulative yields were highest in CA, NY, MO and MA and lowest in CO and IL. The highest yields were on the vigorous peach and peach hybrid rootstocks. Rootstocks with the highest yield efficiency were the semi-dwarfing and dwarfing HBOK 10, HBOK 32, Controller 5 and Krymsk®1.