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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Aberdeen, Idaho » Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #297855

Research Project: Improving Sustainability of Rainbow Trout Production by Integrated Development of Improved Grains, Feeds, and Trout

Location: Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research

Title: Evaluation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different grain sources as dietary protein for hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. Aureus

Author
item Welker, Thomas
item Lim, Chhorn
item Liu, Keshun
item Klesius, Phillip

Submitted to: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/9/2014
Publication Date: 12/16/2014
Citation: Welker, T.L., Lim, C.E., Liu, K., Klesius, P.H. 2014. Evaluation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different grain sources as dietary protein for hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. Aureus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 45(6):625-637.

Interpretive Summary: Soybean meal (SBM) has been the most widely used alternative protein source and successfully incorporated into diets of tilapia and other fish species. Tilapias are worldwide cultured species and SBM comprises over 40% of its feed used in intensive culture. The price of SBM has nearly doubled since 2005, which has raised the cost of tilapia feed. Since feed cost is the major expense in semi-intensive and intensive tilapia production, it is of vital significance to develop cost-effective feeds for this species. In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have led to a dramatic increase in ethanol production from various cereal grains (corn, wheat, sorghum, rye, etc.). A byproduct of ethanol production is distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which has shown promise as a protein source in the diets of terrestrial livestock and fish. As the ethanol industry continues to grow, cereal grains other than corn, including wheat and sorghum, have also been used to produce ethanol. DDGS is currently readily available and competitively priced relative to other conventional alternative protein sources, such as SBM. However, the quality and nutritional composition can vary considerably between and within DDGS grain sources, and these differences must be taken into account when formulating feed, which could affect feed costs. Distiller’s dried grains with solubles from grain sources other than corn must be evaluated before they can be incorporated into diets of tilapia. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of different DDGS grain sources added as replacement of one-third of dietary protein on hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, performance. All-male hybrid tilapia (3.72 ± 0.08 g initial weight) were fed diets in which 30% of protein in the diet, supplied by a combination of soybean meal (SBM) and corn meal (CM) (SBM:CM ratio = 1.8), was replaced by wheat (WtDDGS), sorghum (SDDGS), whiskey (WkDDGS), or one of three corn DDGS sources (CDDGS 1-3) for 10 weeks. Growth of tilapia fed diets containing DDGS sources was similar to or better than the control diet, and no nutritional deficiencies were observed. Tilapia fed the CDDGS 2 and 3 sources showed superior weight gain. Improved growth appeared to be caused by an increase in feed intake and not improvements in dietary nutritional value. Hematology, immune function, and resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection were not affected by DDGS source. Distiller’s dried grains with solubles from all the sources we examined can be included in the diet of juvenile hybrid tilapia at about 30% as a replacement of one-third protein from SBM-CM mixture with no adverse effects.

Technical Abstract: The effects of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different sources on growth performance, hematology, and immunity of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, were evaluated. Sex-reversed, all-male hybrid tilapia (3.72 ± 0.08 g initial weight) were fed diets in which 30% of protein in the basal, control diet, supplied by a combination of soybean meal (SBM) and corn meal (CM) (SBM:CM ratio = 1.8), was replaced by wheat (WtDDGS), sorghum (SDDGS), whiskey (WkDDGS), or one of three corn DDGS sources (CDDGS 1-3) (control and 6 experimental diets) for 10 wk. Tilapia were stocked at 30 fish/aquaria (3 aquaria/diet). Growth of tilapia fed diets containing DDGS sources was similar to or better than the control diet, and no nutritional deficiencies were observed. Tilapia fed the CDDGS 2 and 3 sources showed superior weight gain. Improved growth appeared to be caused by an increase in feed intake and not improvements in dietary nutritional value. Hematology, immune function, and resistance to Streptococcus iniae challenge were not affected by DDGS source. Distiller’s dried grains with solubles from all the sources we examined can be included in the diet of juvenile hybrid tilapia at about 30% as a replacement of one-third protein from SBM-CM mixture with no adverse effects.