Location: Hard Winter Wheat Genetics ResearchTitle: Impact of temperatures to Hessian Fly resistance of selected wheat cultivars in the Great Plains Region Author
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/21/2014
Publication Date: 4/28/2014
Citation: Chen, M., Wheeler, S., Wang, H., Whitworth, J.R. 2014. Impact of temperatures to Hessian Fly resistance of selected wheat cultivars in the Great Plains Region. Journal of Economic Entomology. 107(3): 1266-1273. Interpretive Summary: The Hessian fly is a major pest of wheat and is mainly controlled using resistant wheat cultivars. However, the host resistance strategy is generally less successful in the southern U.S. In this study, we discovered that different temperatures have a profound impact on Hessian fly resistance in selected wheat cultivars from the U.S. Great Plains. Many wheat cultivars that are fly-resistant at 20 ºC become susceptible at higher temperatures, and many other cultivars that are fly-susceptible at 20 ºC, including popular cultivars ‘Bill Brown’, ‘Byrd’, ‘Endurance’, ‘Fuller’, ‘GA-031257-10LE34’, and ‘KS09H19-2-3’ become resistant at a lower temperature. This finding is significant in several respects. First, this information is important for wheat growers to make cultivar decisions according to historical temperatures in their regions. Second, the loss of fly-resistance in wheat plants at higher temperatures poses a threat for future success of the host resistance strategy due to global climate change. Third, many cultivars that were classified as fly-susceptible according to standard screening criteria are actually resistant at historical average temperatures in the Great Plains area during the wheat growing season. The impact of wheat cultivars with fly-resistance at low temperatures needs to be evaluated further.
Technical Abstract: Changes in temperature can result in fundamental changes in plant physiology. This study investigated the impact of different temperatures from 14 to 26 °C on the resistance or susceptibility to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, of selected wheat cultivars that are either currently popular in the Great Plains area or soon to be released to this region. We found that many wheat cultivars including ‘Bill Brown’, ‘Byrd’, ‘Endurance’, ‘Fuller’, ‘GA-031257-10LE34’, and ‘KS09H19-2-3’ were susceptible to Hessian fly infestation at or above 20 ºC, but became resistant at a certain lower temperature, depending on different cultivars. These cultivars were classified as Hessian fly susceptible according to traditional standards, and their impact on Hessian fly management needs to be reevaluated. On the other hand, many wheat cultivars that were resistant at or below 20 ºC became destabilized at a certain higher temperature. Phenotypic variations among the resistant cultivars at different temperatures were also observed, suggesting potential different resistance mechanisms. Studies on the genetic and molecular mechanisms associated with resistance at different temperatures are needed, which may lead to improved wheat cultivars with more durable resistance to Hessian fly infestation.