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Title: Sleep duration of underserved minority children in a cross-sectional study

Author
item Wong, William - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item Ortiz, Christina - Houston Parks & Recreation
item Lathan, Debra - Houston Parks & Recreation
item Moore, Louis - Houston Parks & Recreation
item Konzelmann, Karen - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item Adolph, Anne - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item Smith, E - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item Butte, Nancy - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)

Submitted to: BioMed Central(BMC) Public Health
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/8/2013
Publication Date: 7/12/2013
Citation: Wong, W.W., Ortiz, C.L., Lathan, D., Moore, L.A., Konzelmann, K.L., Adolph, A.L., Smith, E.O., Butte, N.F. 2013. Sleep duration of underserved minority children in a cross-sectional study. BioMed Central(BMC) Public Health. 13:648.

Interpretive Summary: The number of children who are overweight and obese is higher among minority children when compared to white children. Short sleep is known to relate to increased risk of obesity. Little is known about the amount of time minority children sleep. The study measured the sleep time among 483 minority children living in inner city, low-income neighborhoods over 7 consecutive days using the most objective activity monitoring tool. Our results showed that these children were sleeping only 8.8 hours per day, well below the 10-11 hours per day recommended for school-aged children. Hispanic children slept longer than black children. Obese children also slept less than children with healthy body weight. Although the children slept a little bit longer during the weekend, the amount was not enough to offset their short sleep during the weekdays. Therefore, to prevent childhood obesity, especially among minority children, families should encourage their children to go to bed early and to provide a home that promotes longer sleep.

Technical Abstract: Short sleep duration has been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity. Childhood obesity is more prevalent among underserved minority children. The study measured the sleep duration of underserved minority children living in a large US urban environment using accelerometry and its relationship with BMI, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, ethnicity and physical activity. Time spent on sleep and physical activity among 333 Hispanic and 150 black children (9–12 y) was measured objectively by accelerometry over 5–7 consecutive days. The children were recruited at 14 underserved community centers in Houston, Texas, between January 2009 and February 2011. Body weight and height were measured in duplicate. The majority of children (88.8%) wore the monitor for 6 consecutive days. The children slept 8.8 +/- 0.6 (mean +/- SD) h/d and spent 45 +/- 24 min/d on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Hispanic children slept 0.2 h/d longer (P < 0.001) than black children. Obese children slept 0.2 h/d less (P < 0.02) than normal-weight children. SES had no effect on sleep duration. There was a significant interaction between gender and age (P < 0.03); girls aged 11–12 y slept 0.3 h/d less than boys and the younger girls. Children slept 0.6 h/d longer (P < 0.001) during the weekend than weekdays. No relation was detected between sleep duration and MVPA time. Minority children living in a large metropolitan area in the US are not meeting the National Sleep Foundation recommendation for sleep duration of 10–11 h/d. Longitudinal studies based on objective measures are needed to establish causality between sleep duration and obesity risk among minority children.