Location: Hard Winter Wheat Genetics ResearchTitle: Wheat Mds-1 encodes a heat-shock protein and governs susceptibility towards the Hessian fly gall midge Author
Submitted to: Nature Communications
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/29/2013
Publication Date: 6/24/2013
Citation: Liu, X., Khajuria, C., Li, J., Trick, H.N., Huang, L., Gill, B.S., Reeck, G.R., Antony, G., White, F.F., Chen, M. 2013. Wheat Mds-1 encodes a heat-shock protein and governs susceptibility towards the Hessian fly gall midge. Nature Communications. 4:2070. Interpretive Summary: Gall midges induce formation of host nutritive cells and alter plant metabolism to utilize host resources. Here we show that the gene Mayetiola destructor susceptibility-1 (Mds-1) on wheat chromosome 3AS encodes a small heat-shock protein and is a major susceptibility gene for infestation of wheat by the gall midge, M. destructor, commonly known as the Hessian fly. Transcription of Mds-1 and its homoeologs increases upon insect infestation. Ectopic expression of Mds-1 or induction by heat shock suppresses resistance of wheat mediated by the resistance gene H13 to Hessian fly. Silencing of Mds-1 by RNA interference confers immunity to all Hessian fly biotypes on normally susceptible wheat genotypes. Mds-1 silenced plants also show reduced lesion formation due to infection by the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. Modification of susceptibility genes may provide broad and durable sources of resistance to Hessian fly, B. graminis f. sp. tritici, and other pests.
Technical Abstract: Plant pests including insects must manipulate plants in order to utilize the nutrition and environment of the host. Here, we show that the heat-shock protein gene Mayetiola destructor susceptibility gene-1 (Mds-1) is a major susceptibility gene in wheat that allows the gall midge M. destructor, commonly known as the Hessian fly to manipulate wheat seedlings. Transcription of Mds-1 increased upon insect infestation, and knockdown of Mds-1 transcript level by RNA interference converts susceptible wheat genotypes resistant to all Hessian fly biotypes. Ectopic expression or induction of Mds-1 by heat shock suppresses resistance due to the major resistance gene H13. Serendipitously, Mds-1-silenced plants are also resistant to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, and Mds-1 expression is also up-regulated during the fungal infection of normal wheat plants, indicating that the Hessian fly and powdery mildew exploit a common stress response pathway to overcome innate host defense. Modification of susceptibility genes may provide a potentially broad and durable source of resistance to the Hessian fly and powdery mildew pests.