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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Cereal Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #295327

Research Project: Enhancement of Hard Spring Wheat, Durum, and Oat Quality

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Processing, cooking, and cooling affect prebiotic concentrations in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus)

Author
item Johnson, Casey - North Dakota State University
item Thavarajah, Dilrukshi - North Dakota State University
item Thavarajah, Pushparajah - North Dakota State University
item Payne, Scott - North Dakota State University
item Moore, Jayma - North Dakota State University
item Ohm, Jae-bom

Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/9/2014
Publication Date: 11/18/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60082
Citation: Johnson, C.R., Thavarajah, D., Thavarajah, P., Payne, S., Moore, J., Ohm, J.-B. 2015. Processing, cooking, and cooling affect prebiotic concentrations in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 38:106-111.

Interpretive Summary: Lentil is an important staple food crop in many regions world-wide and is a good source of protein (20-30%) and various nutrients. Lentil contains prebiotic compounds that provide health benefits upon human by changing composition and/or activity of microorganisms present in digestive organs including intestines. Serving 1-cup of lentil is estimated to provide over 7.7 g of prebiotics. The main prebiotics in lentil include raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO) and resistant starch (RS). The objectives of this study were (1) to assess concentrations of RFO, and RS in commercially-available two lentil market classes, and (2) to determine concentration changes of RFO and ES associated with common processing procedures: dehulling, cooking, cooling, and reheating. Concentrations of RFO and RS were measured in raw, cooked, cooled, and reheated lentil from two different market classes, both with and without the intact hull. Modest reductions of RFO concentration were observed with cooking, cooling, and reheating. Mean RS concentration in raw, cooked, cooled, and reheated lentil were, respectively, 3.0, 3.0, 5.1, and 5.1 g/100g on dry weight basis, clearly demonstrating cooling-induced synthesis of RS after heating. These results highlight the importance of processing techniques on lentil nutritional quality for both consumer and food industry uses.

Technical Abstract: Lentil is an important staple food crop in many regions world-wide and is a good source of protein (20-30%) and various micronutrients. Lentil contains raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO), resistant starch (RS), and other prebiotic compounds essential for maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal microflora. Previously, it was estimated that a 1-cup serving of lentil could provide over 7.7 g of prebiotics. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess concentrations of RFO, and RS in commercially-available two lentil market classes, and (2) to determine concentration changes of RFO and ES associated with common processing procedures: dehulling, cooking, cooling, and reheating. Concentrations of RFO and RS were measured in raw, cooked, cooled, and reheated lentil from two different market classes, both with and without the intact hull. Modest RFO concentration reductions were observed with cooking, cooling, and reheating. Mean RS concentration in raw, cooked, cooled, and reheated lentil were, respectively, 3.0, 3.0, 5.1, and 5.1 g/100g (DM), clearly demonstrating cooling-induced synthesis of RS from gelatinized starch. These results highlight the importance of processing techniques on lentil nutritional quality for both consumer and food industry use.