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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Gainesville, Florida » Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology » Insect Behavior and Biocontrol Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #294688

Research Project: Biologically-based Technologies for Management of Crop Insect Pests in Local and Areawide Programs

Location: Insect Behavior and Biocontrol Research

Title: Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida

Author
item Qualls, Whitney
item Muller, Gunter
item Revay, Edita
item Allan, Sandra - Sandy
item Arheart, Kristopher
item Beier, John
item Smith, Michal
item Scott, Jodi
item Kravchenko, Vasiliy
item Hausmann, Axel
item Yefremova, Zoya
item Xue, Rui-de

Submitted to: ACTA TROPICA
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/4/2013
Publication Date: 3/19/2014
Citation: Qualls, W.A., Muller, G.C., Revay, E.E., Allan, S.A., Arheart, K.L., Beier, J.C., Smith, M.L., Scott, J.M., Kravchenko, V.D., Hausmann, A., Yefremova, Z.A., Xue, R. 2014. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida. Acta Tropica. 131:104-110.

Interpretive Summary: As disease vectors and nuisance insects, mosquitoes significantly negatively impact agriculture and human health worldwide. Control of mosquitoes is often confounded by issues such as pesticide resistance, expense, application problems and negative environmental impact. The approach of targeted delivery of insecticides for mosquito control have recently been developed focusing on the sugar feeding behavior of most mosquitoes. In this study, USDA, Agriculture Research Service scientists at the Center for Medical, Veterinary and Agricultural Entomology in Gainesville, Florida, with University collaborators examined the efficacy of a botanical pesticide combined with sugar-based solutions for control of anopheline mosquitoes near St. Augustine, Florida. Field studies demonstrated over 50% reduction of several mosquito species for 3 weeks. Using dyes in the sugar solutions, the extent of non-target feeding on the solutions was determined. This approach provides an effective innovative method for control of mosquitoes using least toxic botanical chemicals.

Technical Abstract: We evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in the laboratory and the field with the Environmental Protection Agency exempt active ingredient eugenol against vector and nuisance mosquitoes. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control, > 70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Ae. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and > 50% reduction for An. crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Cx. erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB applied to vegetation. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments that this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin America.