|QUALLS, WHITNEY - University Of Miami|
|MULLER, GUNTER - Hebrew University|
|REVAY, EDITA - Technion Institute|
|Allan, Sandra - Sandy|
|ARHEART, KRISTOPHER - University Of Miami|
|BEIER, JOHN - University Of Miami|
|SMITH, MICHAL - Anastasia Mosquito Control District|
|SCOTT, JODI - Anastasia Mosquito Control District|
|KRAVCHENKO, VASILIY - Tel Aviv University|
|HAUSMANN, AXEL - Bavarian State Collection For Zoology|
|YEFREMOVA, ZOYA - Tel Aviv University|
|XUE, RUI-DE - Anastasia Mosquito Control District|
Submitted to: ACTA TROPICA
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/4/2013
Publication Date: 3/19/2014
Citation: Qualls, W.A., Muller, G.C., Revay, E.E., Allan, S.A., Arheart, K.L., Beier, J.C., Smith, M.L., Scott, J.M., Kravchenko, V.D., Hausmann, A., Yefremova, Z.A., Xue, R. 2014. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida. Acta Tropica. 131:104-110.
Interpretive Summary: As disease vectors and nuisance insects, mosquitoes significantly negatively impact agriculture and human health worldwide. Control of mosquitoes is often confounded by issues such as pesticide resistance, expense, application problems and negative environmental impact. The approach of targeted delivery of insecticides for mosquito control have recently been developed focusing on the sugar feeding behavior of most mosquitoes. In this study, USDA, Agriculture Research Service scientists at the Center for Medical, Veterinary and Agricultural Entomology in Gainesville, Florida, with University collaborators examined the efficacy of a botanical pesticide combined with sugar-based solutions for control of anopheline mosquitoes near St. Augustine, Florida. Field studies demonstrated over 50% reduction of several mosquito species for 3 weeks. Using dyes in the sugar solutions, the extent of non-target feeding on the solutions was determined. This approach provides an effective innovative method for control of mosquitoes using least toxic botanical chemicals.
Technical Abstract: We evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in the laboratory and the field with the Environmental Protection Agency exempt active ingredient eugenol against vector and nuisance mosquitoes. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control, > 70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Ae. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and > 50% reduction for An. crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Cx. erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB applied to vegetation. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments that this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin America.