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Research Project: MOLECULAR, CELLULAR, AND REGULATORY ASPECTS OF NUTRITIONAL METABOLISM DURING CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT

Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center

Title: Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

Author
item Lee, Sojung - University Of Pittsburgh Medical Center
item Bacha, Fida - Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item Hannon, Tamara - University Of Pittsburgh Medical Center
item Kuk, Jennifer - York University
item Boesch, Chris - University Of Bern
item Arslanian, Silva - University Of Pittsburgh Medical Center

Submitted to: Diabetes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/4/2012
Publication Date: 11/1/2012
Citation: Lee, S., Bacha, F., Hannon, T., Kuk, J.L., Boesch, C., Arslanian, S. 2012. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial. Diabetes. 61(11):2787-2795.

Interpretive Summary: The best exercise regimen to decrease abdominal fat and decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of two exercise regimen: aerobic exercise as opposed to resistance exercise without change in diet, on risk for diabetes in adolescent overweight boys. We found that both aerobic and resistance exercise regimen prevented the significant weight gain that was observed in a control group that did not exercise. Compared with the controls, boys in both exercise groups had improvement in their abdominal and liver fat. In addition, the group that participated in the resistance exercise had significant improvements in their body’s response to insulin (an important determinant of diabetes risk).

Technical Abstract: The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth. Forty-five obese adolescent boys were randomly assigned to one of three 3-month interventions: AE, RE, or a nonexercising control. Abdominal fat was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and intrahepatic lipid and intramyocellular lipid were assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemiceuglycemic clamp and a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp. Both AE and RE prevented the significant weight gain that was observed in controls. Compared with controls, significant reductions in total and visceral fat and intrahepatic lipid were observed in both exercise groups. Compared with controls, a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (27%) was observed in the RE group. Collapsed across groups, changes in visceral fat were associated with changes in intrahepatic lipid (r = 0.72) and insulin sensitivity (r = 20.47). Both AE and RE alone are effective for reducing abdominal fat and intrahepatic lipid in obese adolescent boys. RE but not AE is also associated with significant improvements in insulin sensitivity.