Location: Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases ResearchTitle: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is not a competent vector of Cache Valley virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus)) Author
Submitted to: Archives of Virology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/2/2013
Publication Date: 5/1/2013
Publication URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00705-013-1715-6
Citation: Reeves, W.K., Miller, M.M. 2013. Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is not a competent vector of Cache Valley virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus). Archives of Virology. 158:2175-2177. Interpretive Summary: The biting midge most associated with disease transmission in the United States (Culicoides sonorensis) was found not to be susceptible to Cache Valley virus. After being fed the virus, only some of the midges carried the virus and none had virus spread to the rest of the insect. This indicates the virus can survive in the midgut but cannot escape the midgut barrier (the insect stomach). Therefore this midge species is likely a very poor transmitter of the disease. The main disease transmitter is likely mosquitoes.
Technical Abstract: We investigated the susceptibility of Culicoides sonorensis to Cache Valley virus (CVV) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) infection and the potential that it could be a vector or site of virus reassortment. CVV is native to the New World and causes disease in livestock. Infected blood meals were fed to both a competent vector, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culicoides sonorensis. All Anopheles mosquitoes were infected as expected, but only 21 % of the C. sonorensis insects were susceptible to infection. These appeared to present a midgut barrier, because virus persisted but did not disseminate. This means Culicoides sonorensis is not likely to be a vector of CVV but could be involved in viral reassortment. Schmallenberg virus (SBV) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) was recently discovered in Europe and probably is a novel virus resulting from a reassortment of two orthobunyaviruses, and an ongoing epizootic in cattle and small ruminants has caused significant economic damage.