Location: Grain Quality and Structure ResearchTitle: Sorghum flour characterization and evaluation in gluten-free flour tortilla) Author
Submitted to: Journal of Food Quality
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/7/2014
Publication Date: 1/7/2014
Publication URL: DOI: 10.1111/jfq.12080
Citation: Winger, M., Khouryieh, H., Aramouni, F. and Herald, T.J. 2014. Sorghum flour characterization and evaluation in gluten-free flour tortilla. Journal of Food Quality. 37:95-106. DOI: 10.1111/jfq.12080. Interpretive Summary: Tortilla sales represent a significant segment of the food industry. Sorghum is a grain that is drought resistant, heat tolerant and is safe for individuals with gluten intolerance. There is not many studies on the use of sorghum flour in the fast growing tortilla market. This research selected four commercial sorghum hybrids to determine if sorghum may be used as an alternative to wheat gluten free tortillas. The research involved studying the physical grain traits of the sorghum kernel and their flour properties of four commercial sorghum hybrids to determine if these flours are suitable for use in tortilla manufacturing. The research determined that there was a difference among the sorghum hybrids in the way the flour handled during processing and in the final tortilla quality. Thus care must be taken in selecting sorghum hybrids for tortilla production.
Technical Abstract: Sorghum is a drought resistant, heat tolerant grain that and is safe for individuals with gluten intolerance. Thus, sorghum may be used as an alternative to wheat for the gluten free market. Tortilla sales represent a significant segment of the food industry. The literature is scarce in reporting the grain and flour quality attributes of sorghum for use in tortillas. The objectives of this research were to characterize kernel and flour properties of four sorghum hybrids and evaluate physicochemical and sensory properties of the sorghum flour in a tortilla system. The four sorghum hybrids selected were Fontanelle-625 (F-625), Fontanelle-1000 (F-1000), ATx631xRTx2907 (NE#20), and 5040C. NE#20 exhibited the largest flour and starch particle diameter. F-1000 exhibited significantly higher starch damage compared to the other three hybrids. The amylose content ranged from 20.2% (NE#20) to 27.3% (F-1000). Proximate analysis data differed amongst the hybrids with F-625 exhibited significantly higher moisture (15%) and ash (1.45%) content, whereas NE#20 exhibited the highest protein content (10.53%). For texture measurements, F-625 exhibited a significantly higher extensibility force (664.68 g-force) and distance to rupture value (0.52). Among the sorghum flours evaluate, Fontanelle-1000 with a smaller particle size and higher starch damage provided a more sensory acceptable gluten free tortilla.